Operation of engine cylinders
The order of the cylinders depends on theirlocation and mutual location of the cranks in the crankshaft. It is provided by the action of the gas distribution mechanism and the supply of fuel (in the carburetor engine - the ignition system), the ignition of the working mixture and the timely closing and opening of the valves.
The order of operation of cylinders of four-cylinder engines
At a cranked shaft all cranks are inone plane, with two of them facing in one direction, and the other in the opposite direction, that is, the angle between the neighboring cranks is 180 degrees. The pistons of the second and third cylinder go up in this arrangement, at the same moment the pistons of the fourth and the first are lowered. Naturally, it is inappropriate to start the working stroke simultaneously in two cylinders. Therefore, if it starts in the first, then in the fourth, the inlet should begin. At this time, a second cylinder may release or contract. In any arrangement of the crankshaft in one of the cylinders, the working stroke is realized. In each subsequent it begins after the previous exactly 180 degrees.
The operating procedure of the cylinders in a six-cylinder engine
In it the crankshaft cranks are locatedin pairs, one to one at an angle of 120 degrees. Each succeeding pair of pistons after the previous one comes to a dead point again after 120 degrees. Flashes of cylinders occur at the same intervals. This order of operation of the VAZ cylinders has the advantage, which consists in that flashes in two neighboring ones do not occur successively. In this alternation, the best conditions for the operation of the crank-crank mechanism are achieved.
The order of operation of cylinders of the V-shaped engine
Cranks in the shaft can be located at an angle in180 and 90 degrees. Two cranks are connected with all the cranks. One of them is connected to the first piston of the cylinder, the other to the second. The piston of the cylinder of the first row returns to the top dead point, in comparison with the second row, 90 degrees earlier.
Procedure of cylinders of twelve-cylinder engines
At any time, thethree cylinders: begins in one, then continues in the next and ends in the third. Due to this, a smaller change in the magnitude of the torque on the shaft and, correspondingly, a greater uniformity of stroke is ensured.
The order of operation of the cylinders of a star
The crankshaft has only one crank,with which all connecting rods are connected. For example, the piston in the first cylinder is in the dead top point, when the connecting rod and crank elbow are aligned. The second piston comes to this point after the angle of the crankshaft turns to the angle between the axes of the nearest cylinders. A uniform alternation of the working stroke is possible only with an odd number of cylinders. Therefore, in such engines the number is always odd, and not more than 11. If necessary, in more cylinders they are arranged in several rows, each of them being in the same plane, working on a common crank.