Clutch in the car
The clutch is designed forshort-term disconnection of the engine and transmission for the period of gear change and promotes smooth starting from the place. If we consider directly the mechanism of disk coupling, then its work is carried out due to friction forces that appear between the contacting surfaces.
There are three main types of coupling: mechanical, hydraulic and electromagnetic.
Today, not many cars are installedelectromagnetic clutch or ETM coupling. In general, electromagnetic clutches have a very wide range of applications, but because of the complexity of their design, large applications in cars have not received. Thus, ETM couplings are often used in the machinery of metal-cutting machines and other production machines. Naturally, the widest application they found in the gearbox. Advantages of electromagnetic couplings:
- protect against overloads (both engine and machine);
- retain the previous torque value;
- due to the slipping of the discs soften blows and shocks.
This clutch has the following significant advantages:
- guaranteed quick start of mechanisms with load;
- the losses of idling are significantly reduced, which normalizes the heat balance of the device in operation;
- protects the mechanism from impulsive loading.
Specifically in cars most often used ormechanical, or hydraulic clutches. Depending on the type of car. For example, on tractors and other agricultural machinery, hydraulic clutches are mainly installed.
- kinetic energy of the fluid;
- small percentage of wear of parts, smoothness of the beginning of the stroke;
- high efficiency and smooth extinction of all impact loads.
Also, such couplings may be dry or oily, one- or two-disc, closed or open.
If the clutch has certainmalfunction, it becomes impossible to smoothly switch gears, hence, the normal start of the car is excluded. Clutch couplings can also be distinguished by the pressing force: with a central or peripheral spring, respectively, there is a semi-centrifugal or centrifugal clutch.
A typical coupling, as a rule, consists of the followingparts: flywheel, clutch release fork, central pressure spring and the primary shaft of the gearbox, clutch cover mounting bolt, driven disc, pressure plate, clutch housing, clutch release clutch, clutch cover. But for different types of cars, and, in general, for different types of machines and machines, the clutch is manufactured in different ways and can have a fundamentally different structure.