Rational classification of motor oils
Rational selection of motor oils is an indispensable condition for the continued operation of the engine of any car. Therefore, this event should be given special attention.
To date, there is a huge number of different classifications of motor oils. The main parameters that lie at their basis are the following:
- a type;
The most common among all is the classification of motor oils by their type:
- Mineral motor oils. Their big advantage is quite low cost. It should be remembered that the range of use of these oils is not very wide. Production is carried out by mixing residual and / or distillate oils.
- Synthetic motor oils. The main advantage is the ability to use in almost any situation. That's just the cost of them is quite large. This is due to the fact that in the production process high-quality components are used, as well as complex equipment.
- Semi-synthetic motor oils. Their use is very beneficial for both the car and its owner. Such engine oils are relatively inexpensive, contribute to a reduction in fuel consumption, and also have good performance characteristics. In this case, they can be used in all types of engines.
The classification of motor oils by their viscosity is fairly common (SAE classification). According to this indicator, they are all divided into the following types:
Marking of engine oils of winter typeis carried out with the use of the letter "W" (0W, 5W, 10W and so on). The higher the number in front of the letter, the higher the viscosity. As for the summer engine oils, they are even labeled with only numbers on a similar principle. All-season oils must have 2 digits in their full name. In this case, the first of them displays the viscosity of the oil at negative temperatures, and the second - the dynamic viscosity at 150oC and kinematic at 100oC.
Apparently, the most difficult is the classificationmotor oils in quality. Its foundation was laid back in 1947, when the so-called API-gradation appeared. It was supplemented many times. A modern classification of this type dates back to 2001. According to her, all motor oils are divided into 2 large categories:
- service: includes 9 classes;
- commercial: includes 10 classes.
All engine oils are from servise categoryare designed for use in those engines that run on gasoline. As for commercial oils, they are designed for diesel power units.
There is one more classification of motor oilsby quality level - ACEA. It divides all types of oils into 3 groups: A, B and C. The first of them includes 3 types: A1, A2 and A3. They are designed for engines running on gasoline. The second group is divided into 4 types: B1, B2, B3 and B4. Such engine oils are used in light diesel engines, which are installed on passenger cars and vans made on their basis. The third group also includes 4 types of oils: C1, C2, C3 and C4. They are used in heavy diesel engines, which are equipped with trucks.