Soviet car GAZ-13: specifications, photo
GAZ-13 & la Chaika "- the first Sovieta representative car with a bright and memorable design, a spacious and comfortable seven-seater, a solid frame construction and an innovative powerful aluminum engine.
Representative cars produced by GAZ
The Seagull, or GAZ-13, is the most famousrepresentative car, manufactured at the Gorky Automobile Plant from 1959 to 1981. The new car was designed to replace the long-base six-seat sedan GAZ-12, created in 1948, as a service car for Soviet party domestic workers, but not used to transport the first persons. "GAZ-12" was the first development of the representative model for the car factory. Before that, such cars were produced exclusively by the Moscow plant "ZIS" (later "ZIL").
Designers of "GAZ" were entrusted with fabricationRepresentative cars due to their own developments, which were marked by bold and modern solutions. So, on GAZ-12 for the first time in the world the installation of three rows of seats on a motor vehicle with a bearing body is applied. A novelty for the domestic automotive industry was the use of hydromechanical transmission, which guarantees smooth movement of a large sedan. At the end of the sixties, the design of the GAZ-12 became rapidly obsolete, and the enterprise urgently began to develop the next generation of the representative car.
Initially, the car factory in order to shorten the termthe development of a new generation of representative cars went along the way of modernization of GAZ-12 and created a prototype GAZ-12V, which received the name "Seagull". Despite the upgrades, which basically reduced to car bodywork, it became clear that the car was clearly obsolete, it would not be possible to create a modern model based on the old sedan, and therefore started to develop new products from scratch.
At the same time, the ZIL plant was developingcar of the highest class ZIL-111 "Moscow". Since both enterprises were guided by the model of the Pakard Patikain sedan and the convertible based on it, purchased by the NAMI Institute for study, the prototypes of the Seagull and of Moscow turned out to be very similar. In connection with this designers again had to change the external image of the "Seagull". In 1956, for the sea trials, a sample was taken, already resembling the future GAZ-13 (photo is shown below).
In appearance, "Seagull" traced featuresAmerican cars of that time, which, incidentally, is not surprising, since the Gorky Automobile Plant already had experience in creating serial models based on American cars.
GAZ-13 received a flying exterior image, which inThat period was called "Detroit Baroque". One of the main elements of this aerospace style was the design of the aft part of the car in the form of the tail of a jet plane or rocket, which was used on the "Seagull".
In the front of the GAZ-13, a swift image was formed;
- drowned in special wells of the front wings head lights;
- a wide grille with a pattern stylized under the sweep of the seagull's wings;
- front bumper with inserts, reminiscent of the elements of the jet engine;
- straight and wide hood.
In the front silhouette the solidity to the representative car was created by:
- straight roof line;
- wide glazing;
- enlarged doors;
- a large number of curly chrome moldings and fringing;
- large arches of the front wheels and half closed to the rear.
All the solutions made it possible to create a bright, unusual and modern appearance of the new representative model GAZ-13 "Chaika".
Interior of the Seagull
Salon GAZ-13 was very spacious andcomfort on the parameters existing for that period. The main feature was the presence of three rows of seats. In this case, the first and third rows are made in the form of wide comfortable sofas. The design of the second row consisted of folding seats intended for protection.
In most cars producedthere was no partition, which ranked the "Seagull" to the class of sedans. The interior decoration was made of light gray cloth for officer's greatcoats, and the interior design was distinguished by strictness and solidity, emphasizing the status of the passenger. Of the innovations first used in domestic cars, it is necessary to name the push button control of an automatic transmission located on the center console, as well as electric windows.
From the very beginning of development it became clear thatthe representative car will receive a large mass, and therefore the designers initially abandoned the load-bearing body, which was used on the previous GAZ-12 model. A frame variant was chosen, while an X-shaped welded frame was used. This performance had increased rigidity and allowed to lower the level of the floor in the car.
GAZ-13 received front-engine layout and automatic rear-wheel drive transmission. As the gearbox was used hydromechanical three-stage automatic.
The front suspension was independenta device consisting of levers, special springs, hydraulic shock absorbers and a stabilizer for lateral stability. The rear version is made with two semi-elliptical springs, and telescopic shock absorbers were used to reduce body oscillations.
To ensure a confident and safe management of a heavy car, a power steering and a vacuum amplifier for the braking system were used.
According to the Soviet graduation, "Seagull" wasthe first class of cars, only government ZILs were higher, and therefore collected manually on special slipways, which ensured the highest quality of assembly.
Over the entire long period of release of the Seagullwas equipped with two variants of power units. They were gasoline engines under the designation GAZ-13 with a capacity of 195 liters. from. and GAZ-13D in 215 forces. The other main technical characteristics of GAZ-13 and 13D (the parameters are given in parentheses) were:
- type - four-stroke, top-hat;
- variant of mixture formation - carburetor;
- number of cylinders - 8;
- configuration - V-shaped;
- number of valves - 16;
- cooling - liquid;
- volume - 5.53 l (5.27 l);
- power - 195 liters. from. (215 hp);
- the compression ratio is 8.5 (10.00);
- gasoline - AI-93 (100).
A key feature of both power units was the manufacture of aluminum alloy following main engine components:
- the block of cylinders;
- Cylinder head;
- the intake manifold;
This decision was very innovative for that period. Similar to the device engines from other automotive companies appeared only in the mid-sixties.
At the representative car GAZ-13 & la Chaika "technical specifications with the engine of the 13th model were:
- body type - sedan;
- number of doors - 4;
- capacity - 7 people;
- wheelbase - 3,25 m;
- length - 5.60 m;
- height - 1,62 m;
- width - 2.00 m;
- ground clearance - 18,0 cm;
- Track rear / front - 1.53 m / 1.54 m;
- the diameter of the turn is 15.60 m:
- Curb weight - 2.10 tons;
- mass full - 2.66 tons;
- the maximum speed is 160.0 km / h;
- acceleration time (100 km / h) - 20 seconds;
- the size of the gas tank is 80 liters;
- fuel consumption - 21.0 liters (100 km in a mixed cycle);
- the tire size is 8.20 / 15.
In the Soviet period, a representative carEven after the write-off, the Seagull could not be sold to private owners, which indicated a special status for the model, but several modifications were made on its basis. They had the following names and purposes:
- GAZ-13A - the version was distinguished by the presence of an internal partition between the driver and the passenger compartment. This allowed to classify 13A to the class of limousines.
- GAZ-13B - cabriolet (chaise) with an open top. In this case, the soft roof awning was raised and lowered using a special electrohydraulic system.
- GAZ-13 - with increased comfort and a capacity of 6 people.
All these cars were produced directly at the Gorky Automobile Plant.
Separately at the Riga factory "RAF" was producedversion GAZ-13S (approximately 20 copies). It was a ambulance car in a station wagon, with a cabin configuration that allows you to place a stretcher. A few GAZ-13 OAKS-3 vehicles were manufactured at the Kinotekhnika plant in Chernihiv. They were intended for filming.
The number of the legendary SovietGAZ-13 "Chaika", according to the information of the enterprise "GAZ", is 3189 copies. At present, according to forecasts of automobile experts and collectors, there remain from 200 to 300 cars. The cost of the surviving "Gulls" can be, depending on the condition, from 25 thousand to 100 thousand dollars.