Work in logistics. The concept, tasks and functions of logistics
After Russia's transition to the marketeconomy in the country began a rapid development of business. However, up to the present time in the sphere of business cooperation there are problems concerning the movement and delivery of raw materials, finance, information and finished products. The organization of all these processes relates to the work of the logistics departments of the enterprise and of individual logistics companies. Such measures, despite their seeming ease, are rather complex and time-consuming. That is why the work in logistics requires not only experience in this field, but also a significant amount of knowledge.
Definition of concept
What does the term "logistics" mean? It means managing the flow of information, finance and goods. In this connection, the work in logistics is to find the most rational way of moving the product in the chain, the initial link of which is the producer, and the final one is the recipient or the consumer. The complexity of implementing this process lies in the need for strict control. It should be conducted from the moment of receipt of the application and information on forthcoming transfers to the release of finished products, their storage in the warehouse and delivery.
What is the work (logistics)? A specialist who has to solve such problems must build the process in such a way that the company receives the maximum profit, while incurring minimal costs. But at the same time, you need to save money with the mind. After all, the buyer is determined to receive the goods of the highest quality, having a reasonable price for it. In addition, all movement of products must be carried out within the deadlines that provide for compliance with the required level of quality of service.
Subject, objectives and tasks
So, we have considered the concept of logistics. The tasks and functions of logistics, as well as its object and purpose, follow directly from the definition given above. Let's start with the subject of this science. They in logistics are the management carried out over the flows of resources of an individual enterprise, as well as control over the state of raw materials, materials and goods. From this follows the purpose of this discipline. It consists in increasing the effectiveness of the organization, which is possible when finding ways to maximize the beneficial movement of funds, finance and goods.
All the works performed in logistics are designed to solve the following tasks:
- manage the movements of goods;
- to control the organized flows of information, finance, services and finished products;
- forecast the enterprise's need for resources;
- plan the movement of wealth.
Logistic functions represent an aggregated group of operations for the delivery of goods, the fulfillment of which is necessary to achieve the set goals. Their list includes:
- work on the formation of economic ties necessary to address the issue of the supply of goods or services, as well as their development, rationalization and adjustment;
- determination of directions and volumes of flows of material values;
- calculation of forecast estimates of transportation needs;
- accommodation, development and organization of warehousing at the enterprise;
- Determination of the optimal route for moving goods through their storage locations;
- management of resources in circulation;
- carrying out of transportations and accompanying operations in the way of the cargo;
- carrying out such operations as marking and packaging, loading and preliminary preparation for it;
- management of operations for the acceptance and storage of goods, as well as the organization of its movement in small batches.
For all the logistical functions listed above, two main features are characteristic. They are concluded that:
- the whole complex of works is subordinated to the achievements of a single goal;
- The carriers of all these functions are the subjects - participants of the logistic process.
When can an assessment of the effectiveness of the work done be given? The functions of the logistics service in the enterprise are evaluated only at the stage of achieving the ultimate goal.
Creation of a department managing the movement of goods
The role of logistics in the work of modernindustrial enterprise is large enough. That is why the leadership of any company should take care of creating a department that will systematize the processes of moving goods. Such a unit, located in the structure of the enterprise, should introduce logistic management into the daily life of the enterprise. The service should be directly subordinate to the head of the company.
Enterprises with a similar department, uniteall functions, without which effective execution of orders is impossible, into a powerful, centrally controlled mechanism, with the help of which tasks of any degree of complexity are solved at a professional level and with great responsibility. But it should be borne in mind that work in the logistics department should not be a substitute for the activities of the relevant structural divisions. Organizationally, all parts of the management of a company should be structured in such a way as to interact with a service that deals with matters of the transfer of material values. This, in turn, will optimize operations and ensure the sustainability of the enterprise.
In the duties of service specialistsLogistics does not include a duty in eliminating failures, as well as in resolving conflict situations and emerging problems. Their function is to coordinate and analyze the implementation of large blocks of tasks. Logistics management is the coordination of operations aimed at achieving the main goal of the enterprise.
Department coordinating the movement of goods,must work closely with all functional departments of the company, optimizing their activities and creating companies with a certain systemic sustainability.
Directions of influence
The logistics department, being a separate structure in the enterprise, influences the solution of the following issues:
- interaction with customs, tax authorities and other government agencies;
- processing of incoming information about orders, existing customers, points of delivery, as well as its rethinking in order to optimize the movement of goods;
- raw materials stocks, since one of the tasks facing the logistician is timely and uninterrupted supply of products to customers, which requires control over its release;
- purchase (it is under the control of the logistics department, as it affects the sales process).
Despite the wide range ofdepartment tasks, work in logistics does not mean the physical substitution of the relevant functional units of the company. After all, as a rule, the volume and quantity of orders may be such that they simply will not allow the specialist, who is called to coordinate the flows of material values, to cover all the facets of deliveries in a detailed and qualitative manner. That is why it is so important to understand that the logistics strategy is to manage orders, and other relevant departments of the company should coordinate these processes.
Examples of using
How popular is this specialty? Logistics is an indispensable link that is necessary at any stage of business activity. An example of this is the organization of food production:
- At the first stage, business planning takes place. At the same time, logistics allows you to correctly calculate the benefits of placing production in a selected location. Only an expert in this field will be able to answer the question whether the activity will be rational from the point of view of the cost of raw materials delivery, as well as in connection with the distance from their points of location. It should be borne in mind that the tasks that the entrepreneur poses for the logistics should be solved as soon as possible.
- After the opening of production and start of productionfinished products will need to organize its sales. Logistics planning is a very important process. Especially when it comes to perishable products such as bread, milk, sausages. Indeed, in this case, the speed and smoothness of the sales process will ultimately contribute to the absence of enterprise losses. In addition, at the stage when relations with customers are still being formed, the delivery of goods in the desired time frame becomes very important.
- Sales Management. At this stage, the close interaction of the logistics department with other structural units of the enterprise. He works most closely with marketing. Logistics management is an organization of coordinated activities of all company structures, which will ensure complete and accurate execution of the tasks set.
Work in logistics requires a large number of operations. This is the versatility of this activity, which is necessary for the following:
- conclusion and monitoring of the implementation of contracts with customers and suppliers;
- organization of transportation (sometimes and delivery of the required materials);
- control of inventory management of the enterprise;
- resolving issues with customs authorities;
- analysis of current market needs;
- development and conclusion of contracts with customers, which take into account legal and legal aspects.
Relationship with the marketing service
The work of a specialist in the movement of goods, as well asthe one who is engaged in its sales is especially closely in contact at the stage of sales of manufactured products. At the same time, the ultimate goal of the activities of the logistics and marketing departments is to increase sales volumes while organizing the most high-quality implementation process. The following common tasks are solved:
- the organization and construction of a network that distributes the shipment of goods, depending on their demand, as well as minimizing costs;
- the choice of packaging and packaging for the goods, so that they attract the customer and ensure the integrity of the cargo;
- development of pricing policy that will allow to change the value of the goods in the direction of its reduction, and upwards.
Manage the movement of goods
What exactly does an employee who has a specialty - logistics do?
He, consisting in the organizational service of the enterprise, does the following:
- develops optimal routes that allow for the delivery of goods with the fullest loading of transport, as soon as possible and with the preservation of the required quality of goods;
- carries out the necessary calculations aimed atreduction of transportation costs, which can be done using one vehicle, delivering several consignments in one direction at once;
- responsible for the safety of the goods during its transportation,which ensures the safety of the route, fast loading and unloading of products, as well as the calculation of humidity and temperature conditions of transportation;
- effectively interacts with other structural divisions of the company, which allows to increase profits, reduce costs and increase profitability.
Tasks of logistics services
The infrastructure of a large enterprise sometimes consistsfrom a whole complex of individual objects located at a considerable distance from each other. In this regard, the logistics department is a different service that controls certain areas of the company. For example, their work may relate to the transportation of goods and warehousing of material values. At the same time, the task of such services is to organize the normal functioning of all the chains connecting the objects of the enterprise and ensure their competent interaction.
Thus, the transport logistics is working onroute planning, and establishes the order of movement of goods. He prepares all the necessary documents that accompany the goods, and carries out subsequent control over all stages of the movement of material values. In addition, such a specialist deals with the insurance of transported commodity values, and also prepares customs documents.
Equally important is the work in warehouselogistics. It represents the organization of activities of all terminals and complexes responsible for the storage of products and materials. The responsibilities of such a logistician include the issues of determining the order not only of placement, but also of storage of products. In addition, he must form a clear scheme that allows the timely processing of commodity and material values. An experienced warehouse logistician is able to select storage equipment and organize efficient use of available usable space.
Logistics managers tend to starthis work as an assistant. This is an assistant, preparing the necessary documentation, as well as processing a variety of information on each stage of the movement of material values.
At this stage, a person can determinearea of activity in which his further career as a logistician will develop. However, in order to rise to the highest professional level, you will need a diploma confirming higher education. What should it be? There are universities that provide specialized education, but, in addition, economists and customs specialists may qualify for the post of logistician.
The most sought-after employers arelogisticians who received international certificates and completed advanced training courses. At the same time a good manager must have excellent analytical and organizational skills. When working with foreign partners, you will also need knowledge of a foreign language.
Logistics manager can beonly a responsible person, because on his shoulders will be the responsibility to ensure the continuous operation of the entire company. In addition, such a specialist should have good communication skills and easy contact with people. In the work he will need and such quality as stress resistance. After all, such a specialist is under constant pressure from carriers, suppliers and management.