Levels of management in the organization
What is the organization of enterprise management? This is a general ordering of the firm, specifying the sequence of actions, as well as the boundaries within which activities are to be carried out. The socio-economic environment of the enterprise is the object of management organization. It includes employees, labor, finance, information resources.
To organize the management of an enterprise, you must perform a number of tasks:
- set goals;
- create a community of people;
- form an organizational structure;
- create the necessary conditions.
Consider the main functions that are inherent in the organization of enterprise management:
- achievement by the enterprise of the set goals;
- reduction of company expenses;
- The division of labor, through which employees perform their duties more qualitatively.
There are such types of division of labor ashorizontal and vertical. In the first case, the company creates units that perform a number of specialized functions. With vertical separation, management levels are formed. The leaders of each of them should highlight problems, find ways and solutions, appoint persons in charge, and allocate time for the task.
The following levels of management are distinguished with a clear distinction of functions:
1. Lower, or technical. It includes managers who solve specific issues related to the implementation of the goals (output, profit, etc.), and also work directly with the performers.
2. Average, or managerial level. This includes managers who control several structural divisions of the enterprise, as well as heads of targeted projects and programs that serve and auxiliary industries.
3. Higher, or institutional level of management. This is the administration of the enterprise, engaged in solving the most important strategic tasks at the enterprise level (development, choice of the sales market, financial management, etc.).
Management specialists A. Thompson and A. Strickland developed the following management theory of organizations. According to their approach, there are such levels of strategic management:
1. Corporate strategy. It deals with the overall objectives of the enterprise and its entire space. Such levels of management perform the functions of adopting the most important technical, production, and economic tasks. Officially, the board of directors makes decisions. These include top managers.
2. Business strategy. It is reduced to achieving success in competition in the market of a separate business. At this level, the following tasks are being solved: strengthening competitiveness, responding to external changes, determining the strategy of behavior of the main structural units. The decision-making body at this level is the board of directors, as well as general directors, heads of departments.
3. Functional strategy. Creates a sequence of actions to achieve the goal in each direction of the enterprise. These levels of management in the organization provide analysis, revision, synthesis of proposals made by managers in the field, as well as actions to achieve the objectives of this unit and support the chosen strategy. These levels include middle managers. Decisions are made by heads of departments.
4. Operational strategy. Contains specific strategies for individual structural units of the enterprise, management levels, including managers in the field. Problems specific to this particular unit are being addressed. Decisions here are made by the heads of departments, functional services.</ p>