Matrix management structure: advantages and disadvantages
The matrix control structure is considered one of thethe most complex structures of the adaptive type. Originally it was developed for the space sphere, but later it became actively used in the electronics industry and in the field of high technologies. There was a need for rapid implementation of technological changes, and at the same time that the opportunities for skilled labor were used to the maximum. All this stimulated the emergence of such a management structure.
Matrix organizational management structureis created by combining linear and software-digital technologies. According to the first system (vertically), specific single areas of organizational activity are managed. As for the program-target form (horizontally), it is used to control production, supply and other areas.
The extent of the use of such a structure is veryare extensive, which indicates its high efficiency, even though the system of double subordination sometimes contributes to the emergence of problems with personnel management.
The matrix control structure can be twotypes. In the first one, the project manager maintains contact with two groups of employees. First of all, these are the members of the project team that are part of it on an ongoing basis. In addition to them, communication is carried out with those subordinates who belong to all the other functional units that are subordinate to it temporarily.
As for the second type, in this case, only those executors who are part of the necessary structural departments are temporarily subordinate to the head.
Project Manager in the matrix structureis responsible for bringing together all resources and activities that are relevant to the implementation of the program. In order for him to achieve the goal, all material and financial resources are brought to his full disposal. The manager has the right to allocate those tasks that must be performed in the first place, as well as determine the terms for their implementation.
Matrix management structure has such advantages:
Simultaneous use of several activities within the framework of ongoing programs.
Getting a high-quality result for many projects and programs.
Involvement of a larger number of managers and specialists at all levels in order to realize specific goals.
Overcoming obstacles that are created in the organization itself. At the same time, the development of functional specialization does not suffer.
Reduce the burden on the top-level manager by redistributing some part of the authority to middle-level managers.
The fact is that, despite the dignity,which have a matrix management system, many practices are very skeptical about its use. The theoretical basis of this system is constructed in such a way that its implementation in practice becomes sometimes very problematic.
There is also a considerable list of shortcomings that this structure has:
In order to implement it, it is necessary to train employees, which takes quite a lot of time.
The structure is very cumbersome and complex, which entails problems not only with its implementation, but also with exploitation.
Within the system, there is no clear distribution of the rights of each participant, so there is a tendency to anarchy.
There are difficulties with the use of promising employees in this company.
In the crisis time, the matrix management structure has a low degree of efficiency.
Very often the struggle for power begins within the framework of the introduction of this system, because the governing powers are not clearly allocated.