Intellectual property and entrepreneurship as a factor of production
The basis of innovative economy ismany factors, the most important of which are intellectual activity, initiative, entrepreneurship as a factor of production. It has been proved by world practice that free enterprise as a factor of production and products of intellectual activity are by far the most significant assets of any business entity.
The dominant position in world tradeoccupy the intellectual orientation of the firm and the corporation, ensuring the creation of modern technologies, their legal protection in promising markets. The struggle for exclusive (patent) rights to new technologies, new methods of doing business, computer operating systems and software products, and other fundamentally new solutions is intensifying. Information as a factor of production, in itself, has become the most valuable commodity, possession of which is the key to economic success. In the innovative economy, the factors of production are innovative enterprise, as well as the possession of objects of intellectual property.
Creating strategic competitive advantagesis provided by increasing intangible assets in organizations (patents for inventions and industrial designs, trademark certificates, etc.), forming a portfolio of patents in order to maximize the exclusive rights to dispose of the created objects of intellectual property. Obtaining exclusive rights to products of intellectual activity allows the owner to successfully sell their goods and services in the markets, to prevent their copying by competitors, to receive additional income from the sale of licenses. And entrepreneurship, as a factor of production or management, seems to be a special sphere, where all this activity acquires an even more significant position. The reason for this is that the innovative path of a number of countries in the world led to the formation of a new sector of world trade - the intellectual property market. The fastest growing article in this sector is trade in licenses for new technologies, software products engineering and technical and consulting services, including services for the exchange and transfer of intellectual property products.
The annual growth rate of these services is about10 %. The trade in patented technologies includes an increasing number of countries. These are firms of South Korea, China, Singapore, Brazil, India and other states. The Russian market of intellectual property is also developing. But, at the same time, if world corporations and firms follow the path of increasing the share of intellectual capital and focus on creating legal protection and commercialization of intellectual property products, most domestic commercial and scientific organizations still exhibit relatively low inventive and patent-licensing activity, inefficiently dispose of exclusive rights to the created OIC. Only 33% of patents registered as of 01.01.2011, only about 10% of invented inventories worked (about other objects the indicators are even lower), only about 5% of goods and services have legal protection in the countries of export, less than 1% of inventions are patented by the procedure of international registration. In 2010, of all licensing agreements, there were: patented inventions 19 (4%), utility models 22 (4.7%) industrial samples 6 (1.3%), know-how 79 (16.9%), commodity signs 331 (70.7%). About 80% of license agreements are concluded between the residents of the country, which indicates that only the internal market of licensed trade is developing and entrepreneurship, as a factor of production, is not developed enough in this segment.
The problems of ensuring the legal protection of newtechnologies of goods exported, the commercialization of OIP, foreign patenting and the sale of licenses for domestic achievements are associated with inadequate financing of research and development, a reduction in the volume and financing of brand and industry science, the lack of resources for obtaining legal protection in foreign countries, the inadequacy of market incentive mechanisms authors and legal entities creating OIS, the lack of a modern infrastructure of intellectual and commercial activities.
To solve the above problems you need:
- ensure priority financingimplementation of high-tech projects, classified as strategically important for increasing exports, whose list should be determined by a special government decree;
- to reduce the rate of profit tax for innovatively active organizations to 10%, to free small and medium-sized business entities from payment of profit tax;
- to abolish the taxation of intangible assets of these entities when accounting for OIS;
- to stimulate the creation and development ofinfrastructure of innovation, including technology parks, business incubators, venture organizations, small innovative organizations by donating them land plots and assets of state enterprises, scientific and educational institutions;
It seems advisable also to develop:
a) Technological schemes (models) of the commercialization of innovative developments containing OIC in the sphere of high technologies as practical recommendations for business entities.
b) methodological materials for the sale and purchase of licenses for high technology development, which contain patented technical and design decisions.
c) methodical recommendations on the wider use of modern brand technologies to increase the competitiveness of goods and the value of enterprises.