The basic models of management.
There are three basic models of management. All of them have their own positive moments and shortcomings, while significantly differing from each other. At present, such models are distinguished: marketing, Japanese and American management models.
Management has nationalfeatures, as well as common features, it is firmly connected with the level of economic development, culture, ethnic and natural features of people's existence. In its history, a large number of foreign countries have been able to accumulate significant information not only in theory, but also in management practices in agriculture, industry, trade, taking into account their specific characteristics. At present, such management models as American and Japanese are considered as polar.
In principle, the category of the "management model" is oneof the key not only in science, but also in management practice. After all, any manager always asks himself questions: how to manage the object entrusted to him, and most importantly, what arsenal of levers, strategies and management technologies must be used to most effectively cope with the solution assigned to it.
Management models include the mainprinciples of management, goals and attitudes, strategic vision, values that are developed jointly, the order and structure of interaction of all their elements, analytical control and monitoring, organizational culture, motivational policies and forces that are driving development.
So, what kind of management models are consideredthe main ones. Let's start with the American one. The management system in the firms of this country is organized quite rigidly. The nature of the relationship between all intrafirm units is determined by the type of enterprise that developed earlier. American firms of the early period had a trust organization, so today in well-known companies (Ford Motors, Chrysler), those enterprises that are in the production departments are completely deprived of independence. Their leaders obey the leaders of all the same production departments.
American style of management has its ownfeatures. In this case, the responsibility of each individual employee is clearly defined. The essence of the American model is that there is an initial conviction - the success of a firm directly depends on the factors that lie within its boundaries. This means reducing costs solely through the identification of various in-house reserves, the rational organization of production, the efficiency of the use of existing resources and the growth of labor productivity. Regarding the American model, we can say that when searching for candidates for specific positions, they are adapted to the system.
Japanese management significantly increasescompetitiveness of the economy of a given country. Here there is a maximum orientation to technical and technological innovations. The distinctive elements of the Japanese management model are, first of all, a system of so-called lifelong hiring. In addition, promotion depends on seniority. An important element is the organization of group work. Labor is also paid for by length of service, and also on the basis of their contribution to the quality and streamlining of the process. There is a system of continuous training right on the job.
But the marketing model is betting onself-fulfilling person. In addition, the company is considered a living organism, which consists of people united by joint values. The firm also needs to be constantly updated, adapting to external factors, and the main factor is the consumer.