What is rubber: what do they do, the scope of application
Rubber is a widely known material thatIt is used practically in all spheres of human life. Medicine, agriculture, industry can not do without this polymer. In many production processes, rubber is also used. What this material is made of and what its features are described in the article.
What is rubber
Rubber is a polymer with a high elasticity. Its structure is represented by chaotic chains of carbon bonded with sulfur atoms.
In the normal state, carbon chains havetwisted view. If the rubber is stretched, the carbon chains will spin. The ability to stretch and quickly return to the old form has made indispensable in many areas such material as rubber.
Of what do it? Typically, rubber is produced by mixing rubber with a vulcanizing agent. After heating to the desired temperature, the mixture thickens.
The difference between rubber and rubber
Rubber and rubber are high molecular weight polymers,received in a natural or synthetic way. These materials are characterized by their physico-chemical properties and production methods. Natural rubber is a substance made from the juice of tropical wood latex. It flows out of the bark when it is damaged. Synthetic rubber is produced by polymerization of styrene, neoprene, butadiene, isobutylene, chloroprene, acrylonitrile. At vulcanization of artificial rubber rubber is formed.
What do different types of rubbers do? For certain types of synthetic materials, organic substances are used that make it possible to obtain a material identical to natural rubber.
Rubber is a universal material that has the following properties:
- High elasticity - the ability to large reverse deformations in a wide range of temperatures.
- Elasticity and stability of shapes for small deformations.
- Amorphous - easily deformed with a slight depression.
- Relative softness.
- Poorly absorbs water.
- Strength and wear resistance.
- Depending on the type of rubber rubber can be characterized by water, oil, benzo, heat resistance and resistance to chemicals, ionizing and light radiation.
Rubber eventually loses its properties andLoses its shape, which is manifested by destruction and loss of strength. The service life of rubber products depends on the conditions of use and can range from several days to several years. Even with prolonged storage, rubber ages and becomes unusable.
Manufacture of rubber
Rubber is produced by vulcanization of rubberwith the addition of mixtures. Typically, 20-60% of the processed mass is rubber. Other components of the rubber compound are fillers, vulcanizing agents, accelerators, plasticizers, antioxidants. Dyes, fragrances, modifiers, flame retardants and other components can also be added to the composition of the mass. The set of components is determined by the required properties, operating conditions, technology of using the finished rubber product and economic calculations. In this way, high-quality rubber is created.
What do rubber semi-finished products do?For this purpose, the technology uses the technology of mixing rubber with other components in special mixers or rollers, intended for the manufacture of semi-finished products, followed by cutting and cutting. The production cycle uses presses, autoclaves, drum and tunnel vulcanizers. The rubber compound is given a high plasticity, due to which the future product acquires the necessary shape.
Articles made of rubber
To date, rubber is used in sports,medicine, construction, agriculture, production. The total number of products made from rubber exceeds more than 60 thousand varieties. The most popular ones are seals, shock absorbers, tubes, seals, sealants, rubberized coatings, facing materials.
Rubber products are widely used in manufacturing processes. This material is also indispensable in the production of gloves, shoes, belts, waterproof cloth, transport belts.
Most of the produced rubber is used to make tires.
Rubber in the production of tires
Rubber is the main material inproduction of automobile tires. This process begins with the preparation of a rubber compound from natural and synthetic rubber. Then, silicone, soot and other chemical components are added to the rubber mass. After thorough mixing, the mixture is sent along a conveyor belt into the furnace. At the output, rubber bands of a certain length are obtained.
At the next stage, the cord is rubberized. Textile and metal cord is poured hot rubber mass. In this way, the inner, textile and belt layer of the tire is manufactured.
What do tires for tires? All manufacturers of automobile tires use different recipes and technologies for manufacturing rubber. To give the finished product strength and reliability, various plasticizers and reinforcing fillers can be added.
For the production of tires use naturalrubber. Its addition to the rubber mixture reduces the heating of the tire. Most of the rubber mixture is synthetic rubber. This component gives the tires elasticity and the ability to withstand heavy loads.