Recycling of garbage in Russia: features, requirements and interesting facts
Recycling of garbage in Russia, like many othersthings, distinguishes our country from the West. Basically in the western countries the sorting of garbage is carried out by one or other criteria. The Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation does not want to hurry with the transition from incineration of garbage to its processing.
The proposed solution of the problem by the Ministry and its Federal Agency
In Russia, for the disposal of garbage locallyincineration plants are used. According to representatives of the Ministry of Natural Resources, these plants are very energy and cost-intensive and in many ways survive at the expense of government subsidies. However, the Ministry plans to build incinerators in accordance with the accepted concept for handling solid waste until 2030. Rosprirodnadzor considers burning as the most optimal form of garbage disposal.
Why burning is not an optimal solution
The problem of garbage in Russia is solved with the help ofburning is dangerous from an environmental point of view. With the help of incineration plants, MSW are converted to smoke, which contains all carcinogens that do not dissipate in the environment when garbage is stored in landfills. As a result of the construction of such plants, there may be an increase in the incidence of a number of severe ailments, including cancer. But even if the issue in question is taken out of the field of the most serious illnesses, emissions with carcinogens cause allergic reactions - a scourge of diseases of recent years. When burning garbage dioxins are released, which are more dangerous than strychnine and cyanide potassium.
The problem of garbage processing in Russia exists, but it must be solved.
The concept of the garbage business
The recycling business must be basedon the creation of relevant factories. Like any other business, this case requires the availability of an initial capital for renting or buying a room, hiring personnel who will have to work on the relevant equipment, but it will also need to be purchased.
In addition, you will have to collect a bunch of different documents that authorize this type of activity.
It is also necessary to provide for how garbage will bedelivered and how to come true. The first is especially relevant, since there is no culture of garbage collection in our country - locally it is stored in one package without sorting and is thrown into a garbage container. According to Rosprirodnadzor experts, if the state does not encourage manufacturers of secondary raw materials for purchases from waste-processing plants, there are no future for such plants.
For recycling of garbage as business in Russia there are positive and negative sides.
Positive aspects of the garbage business
- The volumes of garbage are unlimited.
- The product of processing, as world experience shows, must be in demand.
- Such a business is likely to be supported by local authorities, since for it, recycling is also a headache.
- The processing plant can process different raw materials, and can some specific, which facilitates the decision-making on the beginning of business development.
- Practically zero competition - as will be shown below, there are practically no rubbish processing plants in Russia.
- With a reasonable organization of production, these plants can be fully recouped and profitable for a couple of years.
Negative aspects of the garbage business
- The most important disadvantage is the sorting of garbage, as already mentioned above.
- Big costs - the plant can pay off, and may not pay off with an illiterate approach, but it will require the initial costs, and these costs will not pay off in any case for a number of years.
- A huge bunch of documents, which will have to deal with the enterprise in this business.
- The search for suppliers and buyers, especially at the beginning of the formation of business, is very difficult.
Here are the statistics of garbage processing in Russia. Only 4% of the total volume in our country is recycled. In 2017, the volume of solid domestic waste in Russia exceeded 60 billion tons with an annual replenishment of 60 million tons.
All garbage in our country occupies about 4 millionha, which is comparable to the area of Switzerland or Holland. Each year this area increases by 10%, which is comparable to the total area of the two capitals of Russia.
Currently, about 15,000 landfills operate in the country, which were sanctioned by the authorities, the number of landfills, according to various sources, ranges from 200 to 1000.
More landfills are illegal. Most of them in the Leningrad, Chelyabinsk, Moscow, Sverdlovsk and a number of other areas.
Refuse processing plants in Russia
The data of Rosprirodnadzor testify,that in our country there are only seven incineration plants located in Moscow, Sochi, Murmansk, Vladivostok, Pyatigorsk. Here, incineration of garbage, pressing of the obtained ash and slag and their utilization by digging is carried out. And only 7-10% of the garbage is burnt. The cost of incineration of solid waste is higher than the cost of its incineration.
According to other sources, more than 200waste-processing enterprises, as well as about 50 waste sorting complexes. Let us consider in more detail some of the list of rubbish processing plants in Russia.
In the Kemerovo region since 2008 worksNovokuznetsk waste-processing plant. Here sorting of waste is carried out, the recyclable material is recycled, and the remaining garbage is disposed of in a landfill designed for 75 years.
In the Kursk region in 2013, the sorting line of the waste processing plant was opened.
There is a waste sorting plant in Krasnoyarsk"Clean City", where during the year they process up to 730,000 tons of solid waste. Secondary raw materials are sent for processing, the remains of garbage are disposed of at their own landfill.
In 2014, the waste-processing plant waslaunched in Orenburg. Here toxic substances can be processed, such as medical waste, mercury. The factory is equipped with a perforated installation. Recycling is possible up to 250 000 tons per year. Sorting occurs in manual mode. The remains are buried in the landfill and compacted with a roller.
In the Moscow region, severalincineration plants. These include SUE Spetszavod No. 2, Special Plant No. 3 (this plant operates with enviable volatility), since 2003 the Rudnevo incinerator works.
World experience with garbage collection
Garbage is currently contaminated not onlythe surface of the Earth, but also the ocean. In 1997, the American oceanographer C. Moore, passing through the North Pacific spiral, saw that heaps of garbage were surrounding him far from the land. According to him, to overcome this heap, he needed a week.
In most countries of the world, garbage collection isnot in one container, but in different, pre-sorting. In Ljubljana, Slovenia, as well as in Russia, were going to build incineration plants. Their construction was laid in the draft of 2014, however, the country's leadership changed its mind in time. In the apartment there is a special employee. The need for recycling and recycling is actively promoted among the population.
Recycling of garbage in Russia is onthe initial phase of its development. A very small amount of garbage is recycled. In Russia, the garbage business is not developed. He has his own perspectives, but to try his hand follows those who are not afraid of paper red tape, who have money for the initial capital, which you can take a chance. The management should listen to environmentalists and instead of building incinerators to pay attention to the world experience of garbage processing.