Vegetable fishes: names, peculiarities of cultivation and nutrition. Fish farm
Cultivation of herbivorous fish or maintenanceponds - the main source of fish on the country's trade counters. Technologies of pond fish breeding are developing and changing in connection with the change in the historical, political and economic situation in Russia.
The cycle of growing in carp ponds and otherherbivorous fish traditionally takes two to three years. Nutrition of herbivorous fish in ponds is carried out through the cultivation of polyculture and fertilizer ponds. Refusal to use artificial feed with mineral fertilizers allows to receive an annual increase in all kinds of ponds (growing and feeding).
Species of herbivorous fish
Which fish are herbivorous? The list of herbivorous fish in Russia includes:
- The silver carp is white and mottled.
- White amur.
Due to their natural characteristics, these fish easily take root in many countries, while maintaining the taste indicators.
This commercial fish belongs to the familycarp and is characterized by rapid growth. We know cases of gaining weight by a white cupid up to 50 kg. For the cupid feeding, any vegetation of water bodies, meadow grasses, and also feed-concentrate are suitable. The diet of white cupid is determined by its age.
Age of fish
1-14 day of life
15-30 day of life
Month or more
Duckweed and other vegetation of the pond
The amount of feed consumed by the white cupid often exceeds its body weight.
Cupids are called a natural filter of a pond. Eaten them, the algae pass through the intestines of the fish and again find themselves in a pond, creating comfortable conditions for living and breeding to other fish. The number of fish reclamation depends on how much the pond is overgrown with algae and is from one hundred to five hundred units of white cupid per hectare.
To improve productivity, it is recommended to enterin the diet of fish feeding from perennial grasses. Suitable for alfalfa or sainfoin. With low vegetation in the pond, the white cupid can feed on mixed fodder for a while. But you should not abuse it. This can lead to the development of serious pathologies of the population.
The willingness to reproduce in white cupids depends on the region of residence. So, in the southern regions of the country the white cupid reaches puberty at five years old, and in the northern regions - at eight.
With the help of white amur in the number up to600 pieces per 1 hectare, you can clean slightly overgrown ponds. For moderately and heavily overgrown ponds, the number of cupids should be increased to a thousand individuals per hectare. Introducing young white amur helps during one vegetative period to clean unprofitable reservoirs with watery reeds and prepare them for growing fry carp.
But that the white Cupid showed himself as aameliorator of the water area, it needs to create special conditions. So, the depth of the pond should not be less than half a meter. This condition is necessary for the fish for a successful wintering. And ensure the warming up of water in the summer months to 18 ° C.
Technology of growing planting materialplant-eating fish in complex ponds is based on polyculture. Excellent get along with the white Cupid such representatives of the fish world as a silver carp (white and motley), carp, pike and pike perch. Why the number of herbivorous fish can dramatically decrease? The presence of pike in the pond, guarantees the eating of young amur. Therefore, for successful cleaning of the reservoir from algae, two-year-old Amur, weighing over two hundred grams, are planted.
This technology for a long time successfullyis used by the Saratov fish hatchery of herbivorous fish. After replanting two-year-olds and three-year old white cupids, the company managed to get rid of algae and reeds over an area of more than a thousand hectares, which in turn led to improved production and financial performance.
Carp - the first name that comes to mindwhen answering the question, which of the bony fishes is herbivorous. In fact, carp is a tamed carp. A characteristic feature of its digestive system is the absence of the stomach. Therefore the carp devotes all his life to finding food. Fortunately, in food he is unpretentious - with equal pleasure carp absorbs algae and other aquatic vegetation, insect larvae, midges and small plankton.
Carp - a long-living fish, he is able to live about half a century. Of course, to engage in the cultivation of carps for such a long period of time makes no sense.
Carp is the most popular species on fish farms. Carp breeding accounts for up to 70% of all herbivorous fish.
The popularization of the breeding of these fish is notonly the diversity of what carps feed, but also its insecurity in care and maintenance. This fish easily suffers difficulties and adversity - cold temperature and lack of oxygen.
There are three main subspecies of carp:
These subspecies branch into many breeds. There are decorative types of carp (for example, Koi carp), which are bred for aesthetic purposes.
Mostly carp are bred in private ponds orstakes. Carp Malek is as unpretentious as adults. In the pond with standing or weakly flowing water, the cages fall down, the frames on which the net is stretched. And in them lives and reproduces fish.
Optimal depth of the pond for carp maintenance -one and a half to two meters. A small depth contributes to a good warming of the water. It is recommended to install an oxygen generator for oxygen saturation of the reservoir and illumination for the dark time of the day. Night lighting will attract insects than carp feeds.
With a balanced menu and proper care carp male, weighing 30 grams per season adds weight three times. And by October, his weight is up to a kilogram.
Silver carp white
Best of all, the silver carp is suitable forhabitat in the southern regions. In a day this fish eats the amount of food equal to half its mass. Thanks to such an inherent gluttony, the weight of a white silver carp can reach twenty kilograms.
Perfectly get along with other herbivorous fish, since its diet does not compete with their menu.
The white carp of silver carp is presented in the table below:
Age of fish
From birth to 9 days
Nauplii, small plankton
From 9 days to a month
Rotifers, small crustaceans, detritus
Melioratorsky abilities of a white carverare indispensable for eftropic ponds. Sexual maturity of white carpals depends on climatic conditions: in the southern regions they are ready for reproduction at the age of 5 years, and in the northern at 8.
Silver carpenter motley
It differs from its white counterpart with a truncated trunk and a huge head and a well-developed gill filter apparatus.
Like the white, motley silver carp per day eatsup to half its own weight. For the first two weeks, the young man feeds on one small plankton, eventually passes to larger algae. Adult variegated silver carp prefer blue-green phytoplankton.
This species of carver grows fasterof all, the weight of adult fish can reach up to 40 kilograms. However, when the population increases, the variegated carpels compete with carps. The sexual maturity of these fish does not depend on the habitat and is an average of five years.
At the moment most fish farmsswitched to intensive cultivation technology, which was called pasture fisheries. A characteristic feature of such fish farming is the use of several fish polycultures. Calculation of the density of planting material of different species of herbivorous fish in this case depends on:
- The natural productivity of fish.
- Mineralization of the reservoir.
- Diet of feeding.
- Age of fish.
- The size of the fish.
Ideal conditions for productive breedingherbivorous species of commercial fish, as well as for small marine fish, is the rapid warming of the reservoir. This allows to increase the temperature of the pond water to the optimum values - over 20 ° Celsius - for feeding fish. Given the natural temperature regime of three summer months - the most suitable time for reproduction of fish.
Place for growing young fry
Carp larvae and fry of other herbivorousfish all their "childhood" is carried out in closed water supply installations (UZV) for growing fish - incubation devices that promote the growth of young animals (VNIIPRKh). The density of the number of fry in the USV for growing fish is directly proportional to their weight, and on average it is about two hundred and fifty thousand larvae per one cubic meter. Then the grown young fry are moved to specially equipped tanks - pools or trays.
Features of carp feeding and herbivorous fish
What to feed the fish? This is the main question of a caring owner who is interested in the growth of young animals. That is why it is so important to devote time to studying the distinctive features of feeding various species of herbivorous fish, their food relationships, and also the time for transferring the fry to specialized feed.
The starting feed of larvae and fry of herbivorous fish is the mixed feed of RK0SZM or its analogue - EQUISO. The composition of this feed includes:
- Products of microbiosynthesis, which have a high concentration of protein.
- Fishmeal of low fat content.
- Lean oil.
- Mixture of multivitamins.
- Flour from wheat.
- Sodium caseinate.
After the weight of the young reaches 100 mg, they are transferred to feeding with the mixed feed STRAS - 1. The percentage composition of STRAS -1:
- Proteins - 55%.
- Fats - 7%.
- Carbohydrates - 16%.
- Water is 10%.
For better digestibility, about 50% proteinthe compounds that make up the feed are destructured. The use of feed for fry of herbivorous fish is allowed after switching to external feeding. The periodicity of feeding in incubators is from 20 minutes to half an hour. One portion is distributed evenly in the region of the fry accumulation. Feed larvae is recommended only in the daytime.
Combined feed RK-SMZ, EQUISO and STRAS-1 developedfor feeding fry in the absence of natural food. To adapt the fry to the natural habitat, it is necessary to add small forms of phytoplankton to incubators with fish. The presence of even small amounts of live phytoplankton in the ration of young animals ensures rapid growth of fry and improvement of their vital signs.
The diet of carp larvae weighing up to fifty grams consists of a special feedstuff AK-1KE. It includes:
- Meat-and-bone meal.
- Lean oil.
- Mixture of multivitamins.
- Dicalcium phosphate.
Upon reaching the carp fry weight of fifty gramsand more, it is transferred to compound feed АК - 2КЭ. And when recruiting mass from two hundred grams - mixed feed RGM - 2KE. The composition of all mixed fodders for carp fry includes dry mixtures of natural origin.
The daily norm for carp fry, weighing up totwenty grams is distributed evenly and is given out every hour during the bright time of the day. When typing a fry carp weighing twenty grams or more, the number of feedings per day is reduced to nine to ten times.
Weight of young carp (g)
Degree of heating water (° C)
3 to 5
5 to 10
10 to 20
In winter, if the water temperatureremains 6 ° C or higher, the fish continue to be fed, distributing the daily allowance for three meals. In winter, feeding is carried out only in the daytime and in an amount sufficient to support metabolic processes. So:
- If the water temperature is 6-8 ° C - the rate of food per day is 0.5% of the weight of the fish.
- If 9-10 ° C is the norm to 1%.
- If 10-12 ° C - the norm is up to 2%.
It is best to feed herbivorous fish in winter suitable vegetable feed with a reduced content of protein.
Planting of carp fry, whose weight does not exceed twenty grams, is carried out with density:
- For swimming pools 650 units per cubic meter.
- In cages - up to 500 units per cubic meter.
For young animals of large breeds of fish, this number does not exceed 250 individuals per one cubic meter.
Fish farm: business plan
Fish breeding is a business idea is not new, but itsthe relevance of today only increases. The option of keeping your own rate or pond is a profitable business. But at the initial stage requires a solid investment and a competent organization of the process.
To begin with it is necessary to find the land,Suitable for installing a pool with cages. An obligatory condition for the successful production of fish is the availability of a special filter and equipment necessary for a particular breed of fish.
Procurement of young animals will also require significantfinancial costs. Note that the price of the larva is higher than that of the pods. Calculate the natural loss of fry in the growing process. On average, this amount is up to 10%. Grow a full grown adult from the fry will be only after two - two and a half years.
Any business project begins with the development of a business plan. Evaluation of the fish market makes it possible to draw a conclusion about carp as the most popular commodity on fish stalls.
Estimated estimates for the organization of a fish farm for growing carp:
- Purchase of fry carp for replanting in cages - about ten thousand rubles;
- Salary to the farm staff is thirty thousand rubles;
- Fodder for carp larvae and vitamin mixture - seven to eight thousand rubles;
- Other expenses (payment of water, light, gas for heating the pool) - twenty-twenty-five thousand rubles.
Total, the approximate amount you needhave to start a fish farm, about seventy thousand in the national currency. Therefore, a fish farm refers to a business with a category of investments of up to one hundred thousand rubles. For northern regions of Russia this amount increases by several times, and amounts to about five hundred thousand.
As for profits, then without taxes andfees it fluctuates within a hundred and thirty - one hundred and fifty rubles. However, you can count on profits not earlier than in two or two and a half years. By this time, the carp is transformed into an adult and its mass is one or two kilograms.
Carp, like no other species, is suitablefor the organization of business for growing fish. This is due to its unpretentiousness in food and content. And fast growing fry of carp will help to pay back expenses and receive the income faster. However, it is not worth neglecting the quality of the conditions of keeping fish and mixed fodder. The consumer attitude can lead to the development of pathologies in the fry and its death, as well as the inadequacy of the meat of adult carp to sanitary standards.
Pros and Cons of Fish Business
If we analyze the successful experience of fisheries management, we can single out such advantages in favor of this direction of agriculture:
- A small starting capital makes it easier to create a fish farm.
- The unpretentiousness of herbivorous fish in maintenance and care reduces the owner's costs of paying labor to hired workers.
- Rapid growth of fish of the Cyprinidae family (in just one year the carp larva is gaining the commercial weight of an adult) allows faster recovery of costs and profit.
- Uncomplicated carp in the diet. In addition to feeding on their own, these fish provide a good weight gain and growth when using any compound feed (as special, for fish, birds or cattle).
- The possibility of complementary feeding of carp with natural products - grain or potatoes (the only thing, for better digestibility, they must be pre-cooked).
Of course, in every barrel of honey there is a fly in the ointment. Doing business to grow herbivorous fish has its own "pitfalls":
- Seasonal sales of products. In general, the fry gains commodity weight by the fall, and the massive influx of fish to the product counters, respectively, leads to a decrease in price.
- In the summer, transportation and storage of fish is a very costly and complex undertaking.
- The growth of fish is also directly dependent on the season: in the warm season, carp actively feeds and grows rapidly, in cold weather, these figures decrease;
- Not every outlet can afford to buy equipment for the maintenance of the fish being sold.
- A separate item of expenditure falls on the maintenance of sanitary standards, the treatment of fish and their protection (we have many who want to go to the "free fishing").
To get on the fish farm extraprofit, it is necessary to take into account the natural symbiosis of cultivated polyculture. There is the option of breeding crayfish in the same area with carps. Go to other types of herbivorous fish. Lake crayfish not only perfectly clean the bottom of the reservoir (pond, cages), but are themselves a competing commodity. Additionally, feed the crayfish is not necessary. They feed on the remains of fish feed and eat phytoplankton. During the molting period, crayfish become weak, some of them die, becoming food for fish.
Perhaps breeding carp larvae for sale. For the maintenance of these fry will require a separate water area. However, this additional income is not possible immediately: male carps reach sexual maturity by the third year of life, and females only by the fifth.
Among the sands of the Negev desert in the territoryIsrael, there was a fish farm. The distance to the nearest reservoir is about three hundred kilometers, while the density of fish grown per cubic meter of water is about one hundred kilograms.
To create farm water spaceIt took a well about a kilometer deep, from where water flows, whose chemical composition corresponds to sea or ocean water. This allowed the owners to start and successfully reproduce small sea fish.
Of course, the livelihood of the fish of the desert farmis in the hands of the staff of a special laboratory. They monitor the composition of the water, the operation of the fans, the purification and distillation of water, and its saturation with oxygen. In addition, fish life also depends on uninterrupted electricity.
Creating such a fish farm is not just a breakthrough in the development of the desert territory. Such a fish enterprise creates jobs and an alternative to catching fish in the sea.