Diseases of bees and their treatment. Hives disinfection
Various kinds of diseases of bees are actualproblem of any beekeeper. Unfortunately, most of them have not yet been studied. In this case, the symptoms of many bee diseases are not clearly expressed, and it is rather difficult to define them with the naked eye. And this, in turn, can lead to the loss of dozens of families due to the impossibility of diagnosing at an early stage.
The most common diseases of bees and their treatment
By now breeders have been breda huge number of unpretentious and hardy breeds of these insects. Many of them can be bred, including in Russia. To all sorts of infections, all modern species of bees, fortunately, are fairly stable. However, some diseases, unfortunately, can still occur in apiaries, and quite often.
The most common answer to the question of what bees are suffering from in apiaries are:
American and European foulbrood;
All these diseases are quite the sameIt is dangerous and can significantly reduce the productivity of families. Treatment of bees from varroatosis, feces, nosematosis and other diseases should be started immediately after the discovery of their first symptoms. It can be produced both with the use of industrial preparations, and with folk remedies.
Causes of infection with varroa
About this dangerous and common diseasehundreds of books have already been written. It is caused by the mite Varroa destructor, parasitic on worker bees, drones, larvae and pupae. In our country, this disease was first recorded in 1964 and by now is the most common on apiaries.
Occurs infection with varroatosis on contacthealthy individuals with patients. In most cases, this becomes possible with honey theft by bees from other apiaries, too close placement of the hives, when visiting insects of the same honey.
This disease manifests itself, unfortunately, not at once. The first signs of it can be noticed only a year or two after infection. The main symptoms of varroatosis are:
appearance of ugly individuals in the family;
thinning of bees;
defeat of a part of the open brood (decaying larvae);
the presence of a large number of dead larvae on the board.
When visually inspected, it is easy to detect the mite itself.
How to save the apiary from Varroa destructor
Treatment of bees from varroatosis - procedurequite complex. One of the popular methods in this case is usually not enough. The pronounced therapeutic effect in this disease is given mainly only by special industrial preparations. When apiary families infected with varroatosis are found on apiary, beekeepers often use the means of two varieties:
Based on amitraza, sucheffective drugs, such as "Aqua-Flo", "Bipin-T" and "Apimax". For bees, the instructions for using all these tools are quite simple. The effect is very good. With the use of fluvalinate, such drugs as "Api-san", "Varropol", "Fumisan" are made.
In addition to special drugs for the treatment of beesFrom varroatosis, formic acid is also often used. This tool processes the top of the frames. Evaporation, formic acid kills mites even in bee broods.
"Bipin-T" preparation: instructions for use
This remedy is used from varroatosisbees most often. Apply it in the spring or fall in the absence of brood in families. For treatment, 1 ml of the drug is diluted in 2 liters of warm water. The result is a milky liquid. This solution is collected in a syringe and watered the hive at a rate of 10 ml per one street. After 7 days, the procedure is repeated. For best effect, it is advisable to carry out such treatment twice - once after the end of the honey collection, the second time - before setting the families for the winter.
"Bipin-T", the instruction for use of which is thus simple, is not used for hives of less than 3-4 streets.
Apimax tool: how to apply
Of course, Bipin-T is not the only onea popular medicine for beekeepers. Prevention and treatment of varroatosis and other diseases (eg, nosematosis, ascosphere, foulbrood) is something against which Apimax is also often used. For bees, the instructions for using it are:
0.1 l of balsam should be mixed with 10 liters of sugar solution (50%);
The resulting mixture should be placed in a special feeder and put them in a hive.
American and European foulbrood: causes of infection
It is also a very common disease of bees. And their treatment, and prevention is carried out on certain technologies, which every bee-keeper is obliged to know. The causative agent of the American foulbrood is the bacterium Bacillus larvae, the European one - Melissococcus plutonius. Spores of the first pathogen can remain active for many years. In the dead larvae, for example, they remain alive for 30 years. The causative agent of European foulbrood dies faster. So, on the clothes of a beekeeper, he can live no more than 95 days. Adult insects by both these kinds of bacteria are not affected. Only larvae are affected by American and European foulbrood.
The main causes of infection are:
theft of bees;
transfer of spores by small insects;
top dressing with infected honey;
work in a hive with dirty hands.
Signs of the disease
The main symptoms of American and European foulbrood are:
the presence of a large number of dead larvae in honeycombs;
presence of an unpleasant viscous mixture at the bottom of the cells;
darkening of wax lids and the appearance of holes in them.
The rotting diseases of bees (and their treatment, and prevention - the procedures responsible) can be diagnosed, including by changing the color of the larval cover.
Rid of foulbroods with onlymedicinal preparations is impossible. The fact is that the chemical agents do not destroy the spores of pathogens. Therefore, only the disinfection of beehives in combination with medicines helps to effectively defeat these diseases of bees. And their treatment, and prevention, among other things, should include the following activities:
creating conditions that prevent sporulation;
treatment of hives by means of destroying spores.
As medicines in the treatment of bee colonies, foulings are usually used:
All these products can be used in the form of a suspension in sugar syrup, powder or a conventional solution.
Disinfection of hives infected with foulbrood,is carried out with the help of formaldehyde (4 or 10%). In this case, the metal parts are processed by flaming. The clothes of the beekeeper after visiting the apiary should be steamed for 30 minutes. The same methods are usually performed and prevention of foulbroods.
Causes of infection with hives by nosematosis
This disease is most often found on thoseapiaries, which are not carefully taken care of. Causes nesematosis of bees, whose treatment is easier to carry out than feces or, for example, varroatosis, the bacterium Nosema apis. She lives and reproduces mostly in the litter of sick bees. The causes of infection of the hive with nosema are usually:
high humidity inside the hive;
shortage of Perga in the spring;
- unchecked feed.
Also provoke this disease in bees can rainy and windy weather in summer and sharp temperature changes in winter.
Symptoms of nosematosis
The latent form of this disease is pronouncedhas no symptoms. In this case, the family usually just weakens slightly and it often replaces the uterus. But in most cases, an acute form of nosematosis occurs in apiaries. Bees in this case:
lose the ability to fly;
in a panic run on the hive;
begin to eat very much;
Some time after the appearance of these signs, insects perish.
To combat this disease in the apiary:
bees are given top dressing in the form of a sugar dough with antibiotics mixed with it;
update the population, placing in the hives of young queens.
All these procedures in quite a short timecan save the family from such a dangerous disease as nosematosis of bees. Treatment of it is most effective when using the antibiotic "Fumagillin-B."
Causes of infection with ascospenosis
This disease causes in the hive the fungus Ascosphaeraapis. It affects most of the larvae of drones at the age of 3 to 4 days. There is infection through the outer covers. Larvae with sprouted fungus on their body lose elasticity, perish and dry up. To provoke this fungal disease can:
prolonged cooling with high humidity.
The main symptoms of the disease
Determine the fact that the beehive is infected with ascosphere, you can by the following signs:
mass death of larvae after the last molt;
"Squealing" the sound of sealed honeycombs (because of dried larvae).
How is ascorpheresis treated?
Helping the infected fungus Ascosphaera apis hiveare usually performed by fertilizing insects with sugar powder containing the powder "Nystatin" powdered. You can buy it by visiting almost any store of beekeeping. Also a good remedy for this disease is the yarrow herb (the powder is scattered along the streets).
Prevention of diseases
In order to prevent the spread of any infection, in the apiary, of course, first of all you should observe the requirements of sanitation and hygiene. To such it is possible to carry:
correct placement of the apiary itself;
its periodic disinfection;
observance of hygiene of feeding.
How to place the apiary correctly
The most common diseases of bees and theirsigns, as well as their treatment - this is something with which we have already understood in more detail. However, of course, it is better to try not to allow the infection on the apiary at all, than to try to eradicate it later. To save bees from diseases, you can, including, and choosing the right place for hives. To establish families should be, first of all, not far from the mead, which contain no pesticides or other harmful substances for insects.
The radius of the apiary area is usually 2-3 km. This area, in addition to the rich honey crop, should be characterized by the absence of possible foci of the spread of diseases:
Observance of hygiene of feeding
For the winter bees are supposed to leave 25-30 kg of honey. Also in the hive must be present in sufficient quantities of Perga. In the summer, bees should provide easy access to water. Pour it usually into special drinkers, installed next to the hive.
This procedure is carried out most often in the autumn, afterend of flight. Disinfect all metal and wooden implements, including the hives themselves. Previously, all items subject to treatment, wipe with liquor. The latter is prepared by boiling a solution of ash (1 part for 2 parts water). To prevent infectious diseases in the apiary, you can also visit the beekeeping shop and purchase a formalin solution (1%) or iodine monochloride (1%). Hives after washing by any of these means are transferred to a concrete site. Here they are dried, after which they proceed to the actual treatment of the pathogen-killing agent.
The disinfection of hives, metal andwooden inventory usually a mixture of hydrogen peroxide (10%) and formic acid (0.5%). The treatment is repeated twice, with a break of 1 hour. The prepared solution is carefully sprayed with inventory and hives. After 4 hours all the treated objects are washed with water.
Among other things, to preventspread of contagious diseases in the apiary in autumn it is necessary to disinfect and soil under those hives in which sick bees were seen in the summer. In this case, chlorine lime (38%) is used at the rate of 5 kg per 1 sq. M. Treated by this means the earth should be dug to a depth of 5 cm.
Instead of concluding
Thus, we have found out whichthere are the most common diseases of bees. And their treatment, and prevention should be carried out on certain technologies. Eradicate infection in the hive, usually with the help of both antibiotics, and thorough disinfection. You can use folk remedies to fight bee diseases. However, the use of such techniques is basically only as an adjunct to treatment with much more effective industrial preparations.