business management structure
The structure of enterprise management is created forimplementation of regulatory processes. Agree, the company employs a lot of people who need to be properly managed to achieve a good result of work. It is for this purpose that a structure is developed, in which the work sections of each link are clearly and clearly inscribed. In this structure, the scope of duties of chiefs and subordinates is clearly visible, the degree of subordination and division of labor in the organization is shown.
When developing the structure of enterprise management, it is necessary to remember that:
- competition is stronger inside the organization than between different organizations;
- often the management structure does not help, but makes it difficult to determine the tasks of the units because of their interdependence, which has arisen in this way;
- Some organizations resist changes in their structure;
- often the management structure restricts decisions determined by the development of society, the rates of technical growth and social changes.
Consequently, the structure of enterprise managementcertainly must be flexible, take into account the various changes that can occur in society and be able to perceive them, and therefore, all the time to keep in a dynamic equilibrium.
To build a flexible management structureoften use the terminology adopted in architecture. In other words, "structural architecture" in the management of the organization makes it possible to see in the graphic representation the options for solving various problems, as well as to establish the work of all divisions of the enterprise.
Types of enterprise management structures can be as follows:
- linear - staff;
Each type of structure has its positive aspects and certain drawbacks. Therefore, when developing a management structure at an enterprise, these aspects must be taken into account.
The hierarchical type of management structure arose at the beginning of the 20th century and consists in exercising control over the lower levels of production by higher leadership and in clear subordination to it.
The principles of such a structure are:
- the principle of the division of labor, according to which each worker performs his work clearly in accordance with his specialization;
- principle of standardization of activities;
- the principle of selection, in accordance with which the reception and dismissal from the workplace is carried out by the enterprise in strict compliance with the qualification requirements.
Linear-functional control structurean enterprise (linear) is the most common type of such a structure. Among the advantages of this structure is a clear system of mutual relations between units; a system of one-man management, when in the course of the enterprise's work the head supervises the whole process of work, concentrating the management of the company in his hands; pronounced responsibility of the head; the execution of orders and instructions from the leadership immediately.
The linear structure of enterprise management hasand the following drawbacks: the lack of a link that should deal with strategic planning; often the inability to adapt to changes in the situation; a large number of the management of the organization, which leads to the appearance of "floors" between employees who produce products and the company's management.
Functional structure of enterprise managementwas formed as a result of the complexity of the managerial process. A feature of this type of structure is the formation of special units, in which it is possible to prepare decisions that can come into effect after approval by the management of the enterprise.
It should be noted that the linear-functional structure of enterprise management preserves the uniformity of the manager.