"Ball" is a coastal missile system
The task of securing maritime bordersis relevant for every state that has an extensive coastline. To fear the attack in today's difficult political situation, any country that conducts an independent external course can. For the Russian Federation, surrounded on all sides by the seas and oceans, with its vast territory rich in resources, the problem of monitoring coastal waters is very important. The newest missile systems "Ball" and "Bastion" guarantee reliable protection against possible aggression.
This armament system belongs to the newest generation of DBK. The information about it is dosed, but even based on the meager data, some conclusions can still be made.
Why do anti-ship systems have mobility?
The Russian Federation has the longest seaborders (almost 39 thousand km), they are approximately equal to the length of the equator of the Earth. If land borders can be covered by fortifications, rationally deploying military districts, providing a sufficient level of mobilization capacity in the event of a threat, creating reliable anti-aircraft and anti-missile defense systems, then repelling an attack from the ocean is more difficult because of the unpredictability of the direction of the strike.
Anti-ship missile systems are bypassedbudget is expensive, and the saturation of the entire coastal line with them, the army leadership considers the measure ineffective. In addition, the modern PRK is able to retain a large enough area of a possible breakthrough of the probable enemy. The conclusion is simple: anti-ship missile systems must be mobile. Only in this case they can appear on time in those places where they are most needed, and then quickly change the operational area, remaining relatively invulnerable to retaliatory strikes.
A few words about geopolitics
An important element of the geopolitics of countries - probableopponents traditionally serve the so-called "gunboat diplomacy". You can also recall the notorious "big stick" and the Monroe Doctrine. The essence of these declarations is reduced to a very simple scheme. If a state by its actions hinders the global or regional domination of the US and its allies, a fleet is sent to its shores, the size of which is intended to frighten the leadership of an unruly country. In those cases when the psychological effect was not achieved, firepower and deck aviation were used. Then landing is possible, occupation and the change of the ruling regime to a more loyal one.
Historical examples of such an approach to resolvingthere are regional crises, and there are enough of them, especially in recent decades. The first victims of force are, as a rule, countries that are rich in natural resources and for whatever reasons refused to modernize their own armed forces, especially various types of defense systems (anti-aircraft, anti-missile and anti-ship).
How the "Ball" looks outwardly
To counteract such force pressure,Russia, in addition to other means, has a mobile anti-ship system "Ball". The missile complex has been in service since 2008. The number of serial samples received by the troops in the past period is unknown, but the combat divisions of these BKKs already carry combat duty.
Due to the novelty of the technical equipment and itsdefense, not all details about it are disclosed. However, there is absolutely no point in completely ignoring his characteristics. After all, in addition to solving immediate combat tasks, the psychological effect produced by weapons is also important. The mere fact that an object has possible aggression of some means capable of effectively reflecting it can serve as a powerful deterrent. Therefore, some tactical and technical characteristics of the newest Russian anti-ship system are made public.
The general structure of the combat unit is known,armed BDP "Ball". The coastal missile system is a division-level military unit and consists of several (up to ten) vehicles on the MAZ-7930 four-axle platform. The functions of the manager of the "brain" of the system are carried out by the CPSU (stands for "self-propelled command post of control and communications"). Two machines with roughly similar equipment sets consistently provide control of firing, communication with the army command and communication between other mobile elements. The Bal-E missile complex includes up to four launchers mounted on the same chassis. They serve to directly fire on the enemy. Recharging of missiles in case of need of the next volleys is carried out by TSM (transport-reloading machines), they can also be up to four. The column turns out impressive - up to ten units of heavy equipment.
Some sources indicate the decoding of the letter"E" as a designation of the export orientation of the sample. Perhaps this is true, but it is possible that the additional letter is simply a modification index. The systems that are in service with the Russian Army are also often referred to in the press as "Bal-E." The coastal anti-ship complex as the main ammunition is equipped with a cruise missile X-35 (again, sometimes with the addition of "E"). It was designed as a missile of universal basing (aviation, ship, ground) and is a very effective means of delivering accurate strikes in the face of strong and versatile countermeasures, including electronic countermeasures.
Starting solid fuel accelerator savesfuel on takeoff, then he, emptying, separates and falls to the ground. The wing is folding, the air intake (it is located from the bottom) is trapezoidal. The flight takes place at very low altitudes (from 5 to 10 meters), for its reliability meets the ultra-high radio altimeter. The guidance system is combined (operates on inertial and radar channels). The flight speed is close to the sound speed. Preparing for the launch of the "cold" X-35E missile requires one minute. The weight of the projectile is relatively small - 620 kg, weight of the explosive - 145 kg. Such a blasting penetrating charge of high explosive fragmentation can not guarantee the destruction of a marine target with a displacement of more than 5,000 tons, but this is not required. Most landing amphibious vehicles fit perfectly within this framework. And for larger objects, the coastal missile system of the Bal-E DB can use the salvo regime. The radius of defeat of the X-35 reaches 120 km (the minimum - 7 km). This is quite enough to reflect the attack of the sea assault in advance or to exclude its possibility.
Tactical qualities of the defense system depend onher ability to arrive on time in a firing position and quickly leave her after a volley. The mentioned platform of high patency MAZ-7930 is very reliable and powerful. On it are mounted all the elements of the unified system "Bal". The coastal missile system, which includes up to a dozen vehicles in the marching position, can launch from remote and hidden positions, at a distance of up to 10 km from the sea, due to the design features of the equipment. Moreover, ravines and hollows are the ideal place for shooting, where it is easier to disguise. This is where high cross-country traffic will be required. In addition to this, the MAZ-7930 chassis provides an autonomous range of up to 850 km for a forty-ton launcher. Off-road speed is 20 km / h, on the highway - 60 km / h. A transport-launch container for eight missiles is mounted on each PU, thus, a single salvo of the division makes 32 launches. Time of transfer to combat state from transport - 10 minutes.
Creators and history
Moscow "KB Engineering" created incooperation with other defense enterprises, similar systems of previous generations, and has accumulated a wealth of experience in this field. The mobile coastal missile system "Rubezh" was developed here, it has been in service with the Russian Navy for more than two decades, and it has also been exported. Useful and the developments gained during the creation of the shipborne missile system "Uran-E". These systems can not be considered obsolete, but the Ball, a missile system of the next generation, in its design takes into account the trends of the future development of technology in the 21st century. Serial production of new weapons was assigned to the Typhoon plant. State trials were successfully completed in September 2004.
From the point of view of a person not related tomilitary issues, the coastal ballistic missile complex "Bal-E" consists of some shooting machines. Of course, launchers on a powerful wheeled chassis produce a much greater impression of the spectacular fountains of smoke and fire that burst from the containers at the time of launch. However, in modern warfare, the control system is much more important, which gives all the firepower the required accuracy. Counteraction provided by the enemy in real combat conditions can include a wide variety of components, from active and passive electronic interference to attempts to redirect missiles. The scope of the tasks of the self-propelled command and control post includes radar reconnaissance, and work with targets (including false recognition), and coordinate orientation in the terrain, and the definition of priority objectives. The SKPUS machine (there are two of them, they duplicate each other's functions) is equipped with a retractable antenna system for operations with hidden positions, night vision devices, navigation equipment and setting up their own interference. There are multiply duplicated channels of high stability coded communication. Thanks to all this equipment, the anti-ship complex "Bal-E" can quickly change the dislocation and act with maximum efficiency, quickly occupying new combat positions.
In the event of a real threat from a largethe enemy's naval unit, the battery of launchers will have to be fired at a salvo. The strike of one X-35 rocket can cause serious damage to a frigate ship or completely destroy a small ship, but a large target (a cruiser or an aircraft carrier) requires a series of coordinated hits. Naturally, when firing a volley a division of four launchers will consume the ammunition very quickly. The coastal ballistic missile complex of the Bal-E DBK is capable of four launches (in the number of PUs) every three seconds (the interval between the starts of each car). After the shooting, the unit must leave the position in order to avoid a retaliatory strike. Next comes the TPM (transport-reloading machine). Six-centered shells (32 of them, full ammunition) will take their places with the help of a manipulator in the empty containers of PU DB "Bal". The missile complex will have the opportunity to fire again on the aggressor. The recharging process will take no more than forty minutes.
All weapons can be conditionally divided intotwo categories. Defensive systems are designed to prevent hostile forces from penetrating into the protected territory of the country. Offensive weapons are used in the event of a pre-emptive strike or counter-attack. It is impossible to exclude the aggressive intentions of a possible adversary, when the very sovereignty of the country is called into question. What kind of weapon does the "Ball" belong to? The missile system can be quickly delivered to the desired point of the theater of war, either by its own course or by various modes of transport (for example, by landing ships). In this case, he will cover the troops against possible enemy strikes from the sea. However, the impressive mass of vehicles makes it extremely difficult to airborne, therefore, there is every reason to believe that this DBK is designed to conduct defensive operations on its territory. The Bal-E coastal missile system, if delivered to friendly countries, will seriously impede armed intervention in their internal affairs.
Possibilities for further modernization
Each type of weaponry adoptedIt is intended for long-term military operation, which continues sometimes for decades. The high cost of the basic set dictates the need to reduce the burden of defense spending on the budget. Therefore, each sample is developed taking into account the introduction of possible constructive changes caused by the appearance of a more sophisticated element base and, first of all, concerning the means of computer technology and communication. No exception, and "Bal-E." The coastal anti-ship complex is characterized by a high degree of modernization potential. In particular, it is possible to improve targeting and targeting parameters using information coming from external sources. These include unmanned aerial vehicles, reconnaissance aircraft and helicopters, space surveillance equipment and remote radar surveillance posts. Automatic topographic binding facilitates the task of finding a target.
In the case of the appearance of more modern samplescruise missiles, they will be re-equipped with "Bal-E". The coastal mobile missile system will be able to perform the tasks assigned to it in accordance with the latest technical requirements. The diversity of climatic conditions, in which Russian technology retains combat capability, also determines the high export potential.