The R-500 is a high-precision and subsonic missile. Russian medium-range cruise missile
In 2011, a new Statethe armament program for 2011-2020 (the timing of its implementation in connection with the economic crisis is likely to continue). Within the framework of the Program, a large-scale rearmament and modernization of existing weapons are underway. Missiles play a significant role in the re-equipment of the Armed Forces of Russia.
Equipping the Armed Forces with Missiles
At the end of 2014 the Chief of the General StaffValery Gerasimov summed up the modernization of the army over the past year. With regard to missile equipment, he noted that Russia received thirty-eight intercontinental ballistic missiles. The air defense shelves were replenished with modern air defense systems. Two brigades are rearmed on Iskander-M.
He also told about the deliveries to the navyequipment, namely: the submarine Novorossiysk, the submarine cruiser with cruise missiles Severodvinsk, small missile ships Uglich and Grad Sviyazhsk. In addition, the system that warns of a missile attack is being improved.
How did the "Iskander"
About "Iskander" was first recognized at the exhibition"MAKS-99" aerospace salon in the city of Zhukovsky, Moscow region. Sergei Ivanov, who was Russia's defense minister at the time, noted that this missile complex will be purchased already since 2005.
The predecessor of Iskander was the missile complex 9K714 "Oka", developed under the guidance of the designer with the significant name of SP. Invincible. The fate of the "Oka", however, was deplorable.
In 1987, the presidents of the USSR and the United States, Gorbachev andReagan signed the Treaty on the Elimination of Small and Medium-Range Missiles. The nuclear arms race of the nuclear type was discontinued, but because of the actions of the USSR leadership, the most important weapons systems for the country's defense capability came under restrictions. "Oka" was listed first in this list and was subject to destruction. In 1989, two hundred missiles and one hundred two launchers were destroyed.
The Invincible students managed to revive the complex,which was called "Iskander" (which means in translation from the Tatar "winner"). The new complex, of course, has better tactical and technical characteristics in comparison with its predecessor. However, all the original ideas, laid in the "Oka", found their continuation and development in the "Iskander".
In a state of extreme excitation introducedthe political elite of the West, the reference to the deployment of Iskander in Russia, in the Kaliningrad region, on November 5, 2008. This excitement was akin to what they experience when mentioning Syrian chemical or Iranian nuclear weapons. Since then, the R-500 Iskander missile has become sobering for NATO and the United States in such situations, when it was time to end the protracted disputes.
But from what such reaction? What's the matter? And the fact is that medium-range missiles of the Iskander complex are practically elusive. This is due to several factors. For example:
- The cruise missile is capable of maneuvering with incredible overloads, which to date are not able to reach any interceptor missile in the world.
- Even if the previous point were possible, it would be unrealistic to detect it by standard radar.
- "Iskander" is able to throw out targets specifically,to mislead the enemy, as well as to establish radio interference and to deafen all emitters oriented within the framework of the anti-missile defense system.
Thus, any object located at a distance of up to five hundred kilometers can be destroyed by the Iskander complex by almost one hundred percent.
The operational-tactical RK is of three types: Iskander-E, Iskander-M and Iskander-K.
This system is specially designed for export. Its main characteristics are the following: range - two hundred and eighty kilometers with a mass of the main part of four hundred and eighty kilograms; the speed of the flight is 2100 m / sec.
The missile complex includesa single-stage missile, self-propelled launcher, command and staff and transport-loading machines, a mobile unit for information training, mobile units providing arsenal and training kits in technical and everyday plans.
This version of "Iskander" is the main, more complex, for domestic use. On its basis, an export option was developed - Iskander-E.
Iskander-M is not as noticeable in comparison withprevious and is able to maneuver better both at the start and in the final stage of the flight. Its guidance system is combined, with optical and laser homing, radio correction and GPS.
They are used in the Iskander-M missile system. A developed cruise missiles R-500 since 1998.
These missiles weigh four hundred and eightykilogram, operate at a distance of five hundred kilometers with a flight duration of twenty-four minutes, with a speed of two hundred thirty to two hundred sixty kilometers per second. Although initially the cruise missile was intended for the Iskander-M, later it was adapted to the later developed Iskander. The first tests with an improved complex took place in Kapustin Yar in 2007. There, the R-500 rocket demonstrated all its excellent characteristics.
The missile control system, most likely,is based on the base of GPS and digital computer. CU does not separate. The launching system operates in conjunction with space navigation systems. The sighting data is automatically entered into the missiles, which are in a horizontal position inside the SPU. Data entry takes place quickly and can be adjusted before the start.
Ground-to-ground missiles are reactive, theyThey are used to defeat targets on the ground and are also launched from the ground. This name, along with the use of the term "ground-air", etc., is used only in Russia, and was previously used in the USSR. Thus, according to Russian terminology, the Iskander R-500 missiles are ground-to-surface missiles. In other countries, they are called simply tactical or operational-tactical.
A more perfect version of Iskander-M wasdeveloped in 2012. It was called Iskander-K. Its medium-range missiles are equipped, as on R-37, with bearing surfaces. Thus, it is possible to shoot quickly and accurately on the deck trajectory. The R-500 missile is capable of flying at a six-meter height. It has a combined GOS and interchangeable warheads. The complex can launch two missiles for different purposes with a break of one minute.
Combination of "Iskander"
According to military experts, if bothto apply "Iskander-M" and "Iskander-K", we will get a synergistic effect, which none of the missile defense systems can counteract. When an extremely maneuverable high-flying Iskander of the same type and possessing the same characteristics but flying at a six-meter altitude Iskander of another type will be directed to the same target, it will be hit with the highest probability.
Accommodation of "Iskander"
The US immediately reacted to all communication channels,as soon as Russia deployed the Iskander system in the Kaliningrad region, urging it not to destabilize the situation in Europe. Poland and Latvia also expressed their concern on this issue, stating that such actions, they say, do not lead to a desire for closer cooperation and cooperation with NATO and the European Union. The reaction of Azerbaijan is also interesting, after these missiles were delivered to Armenia. All the aggressive rhetoric that took place before this moment on his part, immediately ceased.
In the summer of 2014, after the annexation of the Crimea to theRussia, the president approved the deployment of complexes in the Crimea. The cruise missiles R-500 with the Iskander complex could not leave Europe and the United States indifferent. And their reaction was already habitually loud and offended. After all, the appearance of such formidable weapons at the Black Sea radically changed the balance of power with NATO.
There is nothing to reply to Iskander. Hence the rapid reaction of the West to the redeployment of Russian complexes within its territory. However, ten years ago, it was said that the Iskander missile systems would be deployed in response to NATO air defenses and missile defense near Russian borders. And this happened. The most unpleasant surprise for NATO was the possible double deployment of Iskander: in the Kaliningrad region and in the Crimea.