Cabbage fodder: description, features of cultivation, variety, photo
In the late autumn, when the fields are already empty, and the grass onpastures noticeably dried up, you can see the plantations of juicy and fresh plants. This cabbage is fodder, which is not afraid of frost. During the transition to the winter diet, the plant allows the cattle breeders to provide their wards with green fodder for as long as possible. Forage cabbage is very fond of cows, goats, rabbits and other animals in the cattle farm.
A bit of history
Europe drew attention to the large juicya plant for a very long time. The first mention of him comes across in ancient Greek and Roman literature. From the coastal European countries, culture gradually spread throughout the world. This version of events is based on the fact that many species of wild cabbage are found only on the sea coasts of Europe, in Asia they are not.
In Russia, cabbage forage caught in about 18thcentury. However, not many grew it. This culture did not take root in our country for a long time, as people simply did not understand that a small investment of means and labor would pay off many times with quality animal feeds. Today, the culture is grown not only in Russia, but also in the fields of Ukraine, Moldova, Azerbaijan, Estonia and so on. Moreover, many varieties have moved overseas and are growing well in America, Africa, New Zealand and Australia, having adapted to local climatic conditions.
General description of culture
Aft cabbage, the name of which says itselffor yourself, not used in salads. Her leaves are too hard for this. This cruciferous plant from the cabbage family, whose feature is the complete absence of heads. In scientific circles the species is known as Brassica subspontanea Lizg.
For a biennial culture with cross pollinationcharacterized by a dense rod branched root with a thickening in the upper part. The plant has an upright thick stalk (stalk), its diameter can reach 5 cm. The stem can have a cylindrical or spindle-shaped shape. Its height is from 35 to 200 cm. Cabbage leaves are lyrate or ovate-elongate. They are large and broadly lanceolate. There are two natural varieties, which differ in the degree of curl and the color of the leaves:
- Scottish - has corrugated curly leaves of a gray-green color.
- Siberian - less curly, with foliage bluish-green color.
In both species, the petioles of the leaves are long at the bottom of the stalk, and shortened at the top.
Flowering, fodder cabbage
Cabbage fodder blossoms in the second year of life. The buds, from which the flower shoots will go, are located in the sinuses of the stalk. Flower-bearing shoots are high (up to 160 cm), branched, with a small number of leaves. Inflorescence of fodder cabbage is a weak loose brush. Its length is about 80 cm.
After flowering a smooth pod of cylindrical shape appears. This is the fodder of stern cabbage. Inside are round, smooth seeds, the color of which varies from the gray-gray to black.
Why grow cabbage?
Pay attention to the forage cabbage is alreadyif only because it allows the use of green feed for animals even after the autumn frosts. But this is not all useful qualities of culture. Cabbage forage is unique in its nutritional properties. It contains a large amount of mineral salts and vitamins. If used as a silage, then in the feed will be almost 18% protein, more than 15% protein, 3.4% fat and more than 46% nitrogen-free extractive substance.
In 1 kg of leaf weight is present up to 100 mgvitamin C and more than 42 mg of vitamin A. It also contains phosphorus, calcium and sulfur, which makes forage cabbage a dietary product for livestock. Animals and poultry perfectly eat silage from this crop. It smells good, is easily digested and, thanks to a high level of proteins and carotene, quickly satiates.
It is noteworthy that the forage does not lose its fodderits properties even after freezing. Thawed leaves remain elastic and do not lose color and taste. Animals do not give up thawed green fodder, which allows to reduce the time of winter feeding. In some European countries, foliage of forage cabbage is artificially dried and stored as a high-protein dry food.
Zone of distribution of fodder crops
Many farmers wonder how they behavein different climatic zones, forage cabbage? Photos of cultivated fields were obtained from the cold regions (Murmansk, Novosibirsk), and from the southern regions of our country. Depending on climatic zones and irrigation conditions, crop yields can range from 300 to 950 centners of phytomass per hectare. In successful places yields reach 1500 quintals of green mass from 1 hectare.
The fundamentals of agrotechnology
The State Register of Russia (2006).) includes a variety of Milestone and several Dutch hybrids (Redbor and Reflex). The culture is placed in the fodder or vegetable crop rotation. Cabbage fodder is planted after legumes and cereals. In extreme cases, after herbs. Sometimes precursors are early vegetable crops, the main thing is that their harvest should be filmed no later than June. In this case, in the second half of the summer, culture has time to form a good harvest. In one place, forage cabbage is planted once in 3-4 years.
Cultivation of aft cabbage
Plantations for cultivation of culture are laid in three ways:
- A non-cropped method, in which the kale (seed) is planted directly into the ground.
- Seedlings cultivation, when 30-40-day plants are transferred from the nurseries to the soil. Seedling during the landing has 4-5 formed leaves.
- The ordinary method, which is developed inLeningrad region. In this case, pure soils or highly effective herbicides are used. The sowing is carried out in an ordinary way, the thinning is not performed. Suspended crops affect the formation of stem cells. In the ground phytomass, the percentage of leaves increases.
Bezrossadny method: features
Non-crop cultivation begins in early spring. The soil under the seeds is prepared, leveled and rolled. To add seed to the soil, vegetable seeders are used. Apply wide-sowing. Row spacing is up to 70 cm. 1 hectare is sown from 1.5 to 4 kg of seeds. Depth of sowing - up to 3 cm.
A few days after sowing,harrowing or destruction of the soil crust by hoe. When emergence emerges loosening of the rows. The latter is treated up to 4 times over the whole vegetation period. Together with this, nitrogen fertilizing is carried out. For harvesting, you can use forage harvesters without a chopper. Harvest from August to December (depending on the timing of sowing).
Seedbed method: features
Seedling Method of Growing Cauliflowerallows to increase the yield of green mass. Planting seedlings in the ground is carried out at the same time as sowing seeds. This method prolongs the period of plant growth, which leads to an increase in feed yield.
Seedlings are grown in a cold way (inunheated hotbeds). Apply the belt and the ordinary way of sowing. When 1-2 leaves were formed, the young plants are thinned out. At the stage 2-3 leaves perform top dressing. On the field, seedlings fall at 4-5 formed sheets.
Seedlings are planted afterspring sowing of cereals. A wide-row method with a row spacing of 70 cm is used. The distance in the row between the plants is up to 40 cm. If the soils are heavy, then the seedlings are planted on the ridges.
A week after disembarkation, fill the places of attacks in the ranks. During the vegetation period, the culture requires 3-4 interrow cultivation. The first is loosening by 8 cm in depth, the subsequent - by 12-15 cm.
Harvesting begins after cessation of plant growth. It is carried out as necessary, in some areas it is stretched until December.
The most popular varieties of forage cabbage
On an industrial scale in Russia, the following varieties of forage cabbage are cultivated: Brain Green Vologda, Brain Green Sivers, Thousand-headed, Podmoskovnaya, Polyarnaya, Milestone.
In the country sections cabbage is not grownonly for food, but also for decorative purposes. Dacha often choose a leaf curly hybrid Redbor F1. The plant has a palm-shaped shape and a beautiful burgundy color of the leaves.
Also, the hybrid Reflex F1 is well established on the sites. It can be used not only for decoration of the site, but also for salads. The plant has beautiful curly leaves of a gentle green color.
For small farms, the mainoption remains Cabbage Milestone aft. It allows you to get maximum yields of green mass without using expensive agrotechnical techniques. If culture is provided with normal care, then a high yield is guaranteed.