St. Nicholas the Epiphany Cathedral: photo, description, architect, address, schedule of services
Nicholas the Epiphany Cathedral inSt. Petersburg deservedly considered one of the most outstanding monuments of Elizabethan baroque. Built in honor of St. Nicholas of Myra, who is the patron saint of all the floating and traveling, he has been the place of spiritual nourishment for Russian sailors for many years.
Petersburg Sea Suburb
It is common knowledge that the life of St. Petersburgis inextricably linked with the sea, and it began around the Admiralty Shipyard, built in 1704. Near it was located in those years Sea settlement - a settlement that consisted mainly of one-story stone barracks, in which lived those whose hands and created the Russian fleet. The memory of them remained in the names - Kanonerskaya street and the same alley. Gunners were called cannoners in Peter's times.
In addition, and the cathedral erected here, of whichwe are talking in our article, also gave its name of the square on which it is located, the market, the alley, the two bridges, and the street bearing Glinka's name today.
As is evident from archival documents, the choice of location,on which the Nikolo-Bogoyavlensky Sea Cathedral later rose, was determined not only by the availability of free space, but also by the proximity of the waterways, such as the Kryukov and the Catherine's canals, as well as the Fontanka River.
The predecessors of the present temple
With the purpose of spiritual nourishment of those who served in theThe Naval Department, near the Admiralty Shipyard, was originally built several churches. At the place where the Nicholas-Epiphany Sea Cathedral now stands, there was a chapel, also consecrated in honor of the heavenly patron of seafarers and travelers. From the memoirs of contemporaries it is known that she was noted for her extraordinary wealth of decoration, but could not accommodate all comers.
Conceding the numerous requests of the parishioners,The Holy Synod decided to erect a wooden church in its place, also dedicated to the heavenly patron of the fleet, but to make it much larger, which was executed in 1743. In it were transferred from the former chapel of the icon, church utensils and everything that was of any value. The parish community of the new church was very numerous. According to the surviving documents, its members were 3396 public employees and craftsmen, not counting women and children.
The beginning of the erection of the stone church
However, the construction of the wooden church wasonly half-measures. Fascinated by its glory, the Russian fleet demanded a more worthy temple for its heavenly patron, and in 1752 Prince Michael Golitsyn, who was president of the Adiralty College, applied to the highest name for the petition for the erection of a new stone cathedral.
All costs were planned to be covered from fundsMaritime Department, as well as from voluntary donations of citizens. In his address to Empress Elizabeth Petrovna, the prince emphasized that the construction of the cathedral would be a worthy retribution for the memory of the "glorious victories of the Russian fleet." The Empress Elizabeth Petrovna did not hesitate to give her consent, after which works were started.
The architect who created the project of the cathedral
Nicholas the Epiphany Cathedral, photo of whichpresented in the article, was built by the St. Petersburg architect Savva Ivanovich Chevakinsky. As a model of the future construction, the architect was recommended to use the cathedral, previously built in Astrakhan, and his favorite features of Peter I during his visit to this Lower Volga city. It is known that the Emperor intended to build the same in St. Petersburg, but the sudden death, which followed in 1725, prevented the implementation of his plans.
Chevakinsky was forced to agree, but in the endthe similarity of the two churches was limited only to their five-headed, which for St. Petersburg in those years was a rarity. The fact is that for a long time already all the temple buildings in it were erected on the model of a famous cathedral located on the territory of the Peter and Paul Fortress, that is, single-headed and crowned with a bell tower with a spire. Thus, creating the St. Nicholas Epiphany Cathedral, the architect made a significant step towards returning to the Russian Orthodox tradition.
Cathedral, which is not afraid of floods
The architect submitted his first project to the highestapproval in the spring of 1752, but soon received it for revision, since the drawing up of drawings did not take into account the possibility of floods, so frequent in the northern capital. After proper processing, which took a year, the project was finally approved in the form in which the cathedral survived to the present day.
In its new version, its building was raisedso that the floor was above the level, which in moments of natural disaster reaches the Neva water. In accordance with this, the general proportions of the cathedral were also considered. Separately from it, from 1755 to 1758, a bell tower was erected, according to the St. Petersburg tradition, crowned with a high spire.
Nicholas the Epiphany Cathedral: description
This one of the largest cathedrals of St. Petersburgaccommodates five thousand people at the same time. Its building has a cross-shaped plan in the plan and is richly decorated with Corinthian columns, stucco moldings, and also balconies with wrought iron gratings.
According to the project SI. Chevakinsky, the building of the cathedral was built in two floors. The vaults of the rooms have the shape of an equilateral cross. The upper church was consecrated in honor of the Epiphany. The solemn ceremony was held on July 26, 1762, by Archbishop Sylvester (Kulyabka) in the presence of Empress Catherine II, who visited the St. Nicholas Epiphany Cathedral. His lower church, as was originally conceived, was consecrated in honor of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker.
Icons of the cathedral and decorative carvings
Particular attention should be paid to the iconostases of bothchurches, made in the XVIII century, outstanding craftsmen and carvers SP Nikulin and IF Kanaev. Also interesting are the icons, the creation of which was entrusted to the best St. Petersburg icon painter of those years, Fedot Lukich Kolokolnikov, and also to his two brothers - Ivan and Mine.
It should be noted, by the way, that the sketches of bothThe iconostases were designed by the architect of the cathedral, SI Chevakinsky. He was also engaged in drawing up a list of icons necessary for them. In addition to the works of these masters, the cathedral presents a unique icon of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker with particles of his relics, made in the XVII century. It is the main cathedral shrine.
Memorial obelisk and charitable institutions of the cathedral
Everyone who comes to Nicholas the Epiphanythe naval cathedral, involuntarily draws attention to a strict obelisk hanging in his garden. It was established in 1908 in memory of the crew of the battleship "Alexander III", who died heroically in the Battle of Tsushima, which was one of the tragic pages of the Russo-Japanese War.
The sketch of the obelisk was created by one of the participants of thoseevents - Colonel, Prince MS Putyatin. In the prerevolutionary period, a hospital for the poor was opened at the cathedral, as well as a women's hospice-hospice and a charity with a free school.
Cathedral in the Soviet and post-Soviet years
In the years following the October coup,Nikolo-Bogoyavlensky Naval Cathedral, whose address: Nikolskaya Square 1/3, unlike many other city churches, was not closed, and in the period from 1941 to 1999 even had the status of a cathedral. In the premises arranged on the choir, in those years lived the Metropolitans of Leningrad - Alexis (Simansky), who later occupied the patriarchal throne, as well as Grigory (Chukov).
In April 2009, after the MetropolitanVladimir (Kotlyarov) was re-consecrated the upper church, it was returned to many of the previously confiscated shrines, among which a special place is occupied by ancient icons made by the painters Kolokolnikov (they were discussed above), as well as the ark with the particles of many Orthodox saints.
Since the St. Nicholas Epiphany Cathedral(St. Petersburg) was originally built as a tribute to the memory of the heroes of the Russian fleet, and in our days this tradition has found its continuation. Confirmation of this can serve as installed in the upper church memorial plaques with the names of dozens of submariners killed in the performance of their duty. Among them was the crew of the Komsomolets submarine, which sank in April 1989 in the Norwegian Sea, as well as the Kursk nuclear submarine, which was killed in 2000. In the days of commemoration, requiems for them and all sailors of the Russian fleet, who gave their lives for their homeland, are served in the cathedral.
Services held in the cathedral
Today, when Russia after many decadestotal atheism again rushed to its spiritual sources, among other St. Petersburg shrines gained its worthy place and the St. Nicholas Epiphany Cathedral. The schedule of the divine services held in it testifies to the completeness and richness of his religious life.
Two liturgies are held daily: early, at 7:00 and late, at 10:00. Each of them is preceded by a confession that begins 15 minutes before the specified time. In addition, at 8:45 and at 12:00, prayer services are held, and at 18:00 - evening worship. The rest of the time, as necessary, is filled with all sorts of trebs.