For a market economy, cashless settlements prevail over cash. This form allows us to achieve significant savings in costs of circulation.
Non-cash settlements are made by recording on bank accounts, as a result of which funds are written off from the payers' accounts and then transferred to the beneficiary's accounts.
Such operations are possible after the openingclients of bank accounts. All payments are made with the consent and order of the account holders in the order of priority of payments within the limits of cash balances. The subjects of the market have the right to choose the forms of such calculations independently. Payments are carried out on the principles of urgency and security (availability of liquid funds to pay off these payments).
Non-cash settlements are carried out on accounts(settlement, current or other), which are opened by all business entities before the commencement of their activities. Any legal entity, regardless of the form of ownership, must have a settlement account with the bank. To open such an account it is necessary to apply to the bank with a statement and attached to it a package of documents. Each newly opened account is assigned an individual number, and customers conclude agreements on a bank account (cash management services).
There are such types of non-cash settlements as settlements by means of payment orders, checks, collection orders, payment requests and letters of credit.
Under the contract, the bank undertakes to credit incomingto the client's account of the funds, execute his orders and provide information about all transactions on the account. The Bank credits incoming funds to the client account not later than the day following the day of their receipt in accordance with the payment document.
If there are sufficient funds in the client's account, they are written off from it in the order in which the client orders and the waiting list for the write-off are received.
If funds are not enough, write-offsis carried out in the following sequence. First of all, the funds are written off on executive documents on compensation for harm or payment of alimony. Then, funds can be written off on documents that provide for the payment of severance pay and wages to persons who work under employment contracts, deductions to funds (PF, MHIF, FSS). Then there are payments to the budget and other funds. After that, other monetary claims may be satisfied and write-offs based on the calendar calendar documents.
Non-cash payments are made without cashmoney, so they are of great importance for accelerating the turnover of funds. For different countries, their own characteristics of the organization of non-cash turnover.
The limit of settlements in cash between subjects of economic life is set by the Central Bank. Payment for goods when the limit is exceeded according to the legislation should be carried out in a non-cash form.
Banks make money transfers on instructionsits clients, using various calculations: through correspondent accounts, inter-branch settlements, using payment settlement systems. The standards and rules for conducting transactions with non-cash money are set by the Central Bank.
You can conduct non-cash settlements using bank cards.
The advantages of such calculations are the ability to control the movement of funds, expand the banking system and credit opportunities, accelerate the turnover of material resources and cash.
Today, the Russian Federation has already developed a stable system of non-cash payments, which is a set of methods for selling non-cash money in the country.