Working capital of the enterprise
It is accepted to distinguish between fixed and working capitalenterprise. Under the term material factors of durable use are meant. We are talking about buildings, cars, equipment and so on. The working capital of the enterprise is constantly changing, since it is spent on purchasing the necessary funds for a certain cycle. Under it you can understand the salary for employees, the means to purchase raw materials and so on.
Working capital of the enterprise
Each production process isa combination of means of production and labor. As already mentioned above, they represent the working capital of the enterprise. Circulating assets are the most important element of production. They help the company to function continuously.
Circulating assets are money means, which the management advances in order to create production assets, as well as various types of circulation funds.
Under production revolving fundsmean the means of production that take part in the production process only once, transferring their value to the manufactured products, while losing their own natural-material form. It's about raw materials, components, work clothes and so on.
The composition of circulation funds includes funds,which in one way or another serve the process of selling products. In the production process, they do not take any part, but they are needed to ensure the unity of sales and production.
The working capital of the organization is in continuous motion, it can function in several spheres simultaneously. The cycle of the production cycle of stages from the stages:
- Working capital passes from the monetary form to the commodity form. That is, there is a purchase of objects of labor;
- entering into production, circulating assets, turn into finished products;
- finished products are sold by consumers - that is, it is sold. The current assets at this stage are again transferred to the cash form.
Part of the money received will be used again for the purchase of items that provide the labor process and so on.
Continuity of the production processis achieved due to the fact that the current assets are simultaneously located in each of the three stages. At these stages they are not the same amount of time. Everything depends on the specific situation and certain factors (sales factors and so on). Delayed working capital can cause serious trouble.
The working capital of the enterprise is classified by:
- Sphere of turnover. It is divided into circulation funds, as well as circulating production assets.
- Scope of the rationing.In this case, it is divided into non-standardizable and standardized means. The standardized means establish the minimum dimensions, and the non-standard ones are established based on the actual data.
- Sources of formation.It means the division into own and borrowed. As it is clear from the titles, own belong to the enterprise, and borrowed ones to someone else. Organizations really often have to resort to all sorts of loans. The need for them arises when there is a shortage of own funds.
The structure of working capital is the ratioindividual elements to their totality. Its analysis can be very useful, as it is an excellent way to diagnose the financial condition of a firm. With it, it can be found out that the finished product is not selling well, the working capital is used ineffectively. It also provides an opportunity to determine the circumstances under which the profit would be much greater. Experts should carry out such an analysis.