What is the grotesque in music, literature, painting and architecture?
What is grotesque? By this term we mean a certain kind of artistic imagery, based on a combination of fantasy and reality, ugly and beautiful, tragic and comic. The main factor that determines what grotesque is, is the contrast of these images. This method can be seen in ancient and modern art, be it music, literature, architecture.
What is the grotesque and where did the term come from? The name itself is taken from painting. This name was painted walls, which was found in the so-called "grottoes". During the excavation of Rome in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, at the site where the baths of the Roman emperor Titus were formerly known, the famous Italian master Raphael and his disciples found an interesting painting, which they later called the term "grotesque".
In the future this term spread tomusic, architecture and literature. What is grotesque by definition? This type of imagery, based on significant contrasting images (fantastic and real, comic and tragic, beautiful and terrible). Such images can not be interpreted literally.
It was Raphael and his disciples who began to useThis kind of artistic imagery for jewelry boxes in the Vatican, for the painting of ceilings, palaces and walls. However, let us clarify what is grotesque in the understanding of the ancients, and was it even before the appearance of this term? In mythology, this aesthetics is common. For example, the ancient motifs of sirens or harpies. One can say with absolute certainty that the authors of such myths and works did not set themselves the task of impressing readers or listeners with grotesque images.
What is grotesque as a reception in literature? This is a way of combining and composition of the horrible and ridiculous, sublime and disgusting, nightmarish and beautiful. This is one of the methods of combining incongruous. Its main difference from irony, humor and sarcasm is that in the grotesque literature the funny and funny is inseparable from the terrible and sinister. This style is full of hyperboles and alogisms, sometimes with elements of absurdity. It is hyperboles as stylistic figures of intentional exaggeration that are an integral part of this artistic style.
What is the grotesque in the question of its meaningfulness? Very often such images are rather tragic and dramatic. Behind pronounced external fantasy and improbability, one can find the deepest artistic generalizations and elaborations of the most important vital phenomena and realities. For example, such moments are very clearly traced in the story of Gogol "The Nose", in such a work as "Tiny Zaches called Zinnober" Hoffmann.
What is the grotesque in music? At an earlier time, this technique was often used during the production of operettas or operas as an element of the theatrical action. To some extent grotesque can be called some works of avant-garde artists. In modern music, it can be seen as a performance.
Speaking of the grotesque, it is necessary to mention the architecture. For example, images of chimeras or gargoyles are a good example of grotesque art.