The Bolkonski family and the Rostov family. Comparative characteristics of Rostov and Bolkonskiy
The idea of creating a novel
The idea that made the classic writer take on1856 for the pen, was to find historical experience to overcome the modern split of Russian society. Half of the peasant reform heated tensions between peasants and landlords. Although even then there were landlords like "Rostov and Bolkonskie", harmonizing Russian society.
Tolstoy began his creative search integratingnational idea from the Decembrist epoch. His novel was to begin with the return of the exiled Decembrist Pierre Bezukhov, along with his wife Natalia and the family. The artistic interpretation of the plot directed his search to 1825 (the year of the Decembrist uprising). However, Pierre walked to the Senate Square consciously, that he directed Lev Nikolaevich to the landmarks of his life: first in 1812, and then in 1805, when it all began. From 1863 to 1869 - for 7 years - he created this novel-epic.
Family and history
The classic in the novel-epic shows over 800characters, of which more than 500 - historically confirmed. People in his description do not look like the collected faceless extras, they are typical, they are related by family and love relationships. Heavy people's trials are examined by him through the prism of contact between families. The family of the Bolkonsky, Kuragins and Rostovs demonstrate in three generations not only through the images of their individual representatives, but also through their characteristic tribal, "clan" traits, their attitude towards the Motherland, the people, and society.
For Tolstoy, the family is the alpha and omega of society. Therefore, as the creator of War and Peace, he uses the power of a demiurge artist to "reward" his most beloved heroes with strong families based on love and respect.
"Healthy forces" of the nobility
In the midst of a difficult test for Russia (and this ismasterfully shown in the novel), the Bolkonsky family and the Rostov family "merged into one stream" with the people, who were bringing down the merciless "club of the people's war" against the Napoleonic army. They are written out by Tolstoy in particular carefully, in every detail, because these two kinds are not just artistic images that "revive the novel," these are two types of the nobility devoted to the Motherland who are ready to give everything for their freedom: property and life.
Rostov Ilya Andreevich
Rostov, hereditary Russian boyars, continueto live the way of the last century. They in their actions used to be guided not by reason, but by spiritual impulses. The Bolkonski family and the Rostov family are not only different in terms of gentility, but also in their views.
The head of the family, Ilya Andreevich Rostov, has bigdating, he - hospitable and generous host, who regularly gives balls and dinners. He prefers everything Russian, likes to live in the country. With souls the soul lives in the soul. He understands everyone, loves, is delicate, cheerful, cheerful. With serfs, he is democratic - to curiosities. Shameless steward Mitka, using the trust of the master, robbed him. Ilya Andreevich does not have a business acumen, he is not economical in his expenses, and his welfare becomes more and more doubtful.
The master is self-confident and not degenerating. For example, when a hunter-farmer, in his thoughtlessness in his heart, cursed him for his slowness in hunting, he treated this with irony, silent and making a guilty look. Perhaps, for this patriarchal way of life, adherence to tradition and kindness, courtyards really love the Rostovs, not "working for them", but "helping them to keep house", as they would help their native people.
Ilya Andreevich can be called a man of honor. When his son Nikolenka lost in cards for 43 thousand rubles. unscrupulous and embittered Dolohov, his father, in a difficult financial situation, gave money immediately. He did so based on the very foundations of his family: love and trust.
The family of the retired general-anshefa and the family of the Russian master
As we mentioned earlier, the Bolkonski Family and the familyRostov has different manners. If the Rostovs are civilians, ingrown over many generations "roots" in the Moscow land, then the Bolkonskie are serving. And the service for the Motherland for them is not a race for ranks and awards.
Not on his own will got into the village estate PrinceNikolai Andreevich Bolkonsky, and after opals. He suffered for his uncompromising nature, for his inability to bend his back before his superiors. Did he become fond of the world around him? To some extent, at the subconscious level - yes.
Economy of Rostov and Bolkonsk
The retired general-anshef fenced off hisestate, as a fortress, from the rest of the world. He despises secular life, but his economy "works like a clock." The Prince purchases the actual imported agricultural equipment, personally supervises agricultural work. Old Bolkonsky cares about the peasants. They do not steal, but they know that labor will be paid for, and if need be, Prince Nikolai can expect help. The people respect him rather than love him.
The Bolkonski family and the Rostov family are in chargedifferently. If the Rostovs fall into decay more and more, the old Bolkonsky with a firm hand holds the control threads, receives income and puts it into agricultural machinery and self-education. His estate, and even the count himself, live strictly according to the daily routine, following the pattern of the military unit.
Comparative characteristics of Rostov and Bolkonskiy
However, the reader is struck by the fact that the princeNikolai, with his mind and economy, is inferior to Ilya Andreyevich "power of the soul". Old Bolkonsky does not catch the "instinct of his soul", does not feel the flow of souls of close people, their aspirations. But this is the strong point of the Rostovs. Affection is their touching relationship to each other.
This often saves the family. When the "trampled and humiliated" Nikolenka Rostov, the loser to the scoundrel Dolokhov for the money actually owned, returned home, then Sister Natasha saved him, maybe from suicide. He heard behind the wall her music playing and singing, and then to him through this "spiritual feeling" came the understanding that all the evil of the world is not worth the love that hovers around his family.
In short, the comparative characteristicsRostov and Bolkonski according to the criterion of the spirituality of family relations - not in favor of a retired general of Suvorov times. Rostovs may be short-sighted and under-educated, but they are in happiness, in constant communication, living with spiritual impulses, overcoming with love and mutual understanding the challenges of the cruel world around them.
In what was manifested the tyranny of Prince Nicholas
Prince Nicholas, having managed to give his childreneducation, inculcating patriotism, is embarrassed by their feelings, considering them to be a weakness. It should be noted that, in fact, the older Bolkonsky is completely different. But it is spoiled by the "mask of the warrior" that has been eaten.
For example, saying goodbye to his son, he, as if embarrassed,asks him to "stay alive," adding that "he will be hurt" if he is killed. Then he hurries away to hide his tears. In this brief phrase there is everything: a suffering father's soul, a love for his son, his blessing to serve.
His children: noble officer Andrei Bolkonsky and daughter Princess Mary - are unhappy with the shortage of parental warmth. But if Prince Andrew himself builds his career, the princess lives on the estate "with her father." The old prince, being an intelligent person, subconsciously understands the lack of sincerity, but "the mask of the warrior" is stronger, and he is engaged in tyranny. No doubt, Prince Nikolai himself does not really know why an adult girl in the wilderness to study geometry. However, having established such an order, it monitors its execution.
At the end of his life the prince becomes the presenta tyrant in relation to her daughter, for some reason "training her with her performance," and morally treating her in a military manner, which looks like a direct mockery. However, the spiritual princess Mary overcomes the fatherhood complexes through the power of her love, and he, on his deathbed, asks for her forgiveness.
Let us consider whether the characterization of the Bolkonsky family and the Rostovs itself is so multi-polar. Perhaps, it has common features.
Common in Rostov and Bolkonski
Despite the different way of life: "from the heart" and "from the mind" - the deep core of these two families is the same. "Russianness", love of their land and devotion to the Fatherland.
At war, having exchanged staff career oncommand of the battle regiment, serves Andrei Bolkonsky. He, like a real hero in an attack with a banner in his hands, is seriously injured and then dies of the wound. Of course, the younger Bolkonsky inherited from his father "Suvorov" courage.
Embraced by a youthful impulse, young Petya Rostovtears to the front after his brother Nikolai. Father and mother bless him. A merciless war, as Tolstoy wrote, - an action that contradicts the "human reason" and "human nature" - kills with a stray bullet of this romantic and bright boy.
Stoyko fights against the French Nikolai Rostov, does not hide in headquarters. Risking his life, near the advanced French units, he is rescued by Princess Mary, who later became his wife.
A real, not heroic, fanfare storyoutlines "War and Peace." The Rostovs and Bolkonskie (namely, the civilian part of the families) remain in their estates until the very last opportunity, before the capture by the French. Rostovs at the same time turn their house into a hospital for the wounded. And when the enemy is approaching close, Count Ilya Andreevich Rostov consciously goes to his ruin for the sake of saving his compatriots. He orders that the acquired property be removed from the prepared for the evacuation of wagons and taken away by Russian soldiers bleeding at them. He can not do otherwise.
Prince Nikolai Bolkonsky decides in partisanto resist the French, he in the Bald Mountains arms his peasants and becomes the head of the militia. However, the heavy news received the day before - the surrender of Smolensk - had already knocked down his strength, and his heart could not stand it. He is dying.
Natasha Rostov and Andrei Bolkonsky
Prince Andrew, the grimace of his "beautiful face"responding to secular entertainment, ironically at the ball met Natasha Rostov. Why is he so disgusted with secularity? He was disappointed with her. This is a sad story: for love Andrew Bolkonsky married a noble girl Liza. She loved him, but mentally they were far away. Together with his young wife, he, with the sole purpose - to please her, attended balls and parties, where he sat out on the sidelines. Family happiness did not work, soon a misfortune occurred - Lisa's death at birth. His wife, the "little princess", gave Andrei a son. He was raised by his father.
Natasha Rostova, a universal favorite, could notphysically without communication with loved ones. She did not like to be alone, to think. It is something like a merry bubbling spring stream. Let us recall the scene of the return from the war of Nicholas Rostov. How does Tolstoy depict Natasha meeting her brother? Not as a person, but as a whirlwind, a stream of joyful, boiling energy: "something, ... like a storm, flew out." And this something embraced and "began to kiss him."
It is no coincidence that Tolstoy's work metNatasha Rostov and Andrei Bolkonsky, "ice and flame". And the flame melt the ice, the story of their love is a real decoration of the great novel. The meeting between Andrei Bolkonsky and Natasha influenced the prince. He became noticeably younger. His cold discretion thawed, his eyes acquired a sparkle, there was a combination of feelings of two completely different people. Before that, he allowed himself to be only with a small circle of people. Natasha immediately, from the first meeting broke into this circle.
How did it happen (and soon enough) that the scoundrelAnatole Kuragin from boredom dragged Natasha behind him, falling in love with himself, having started a scam with abduction? The answer is easy to find. Natasha has always lived with feelings, and the feelings aroused by liars are deceptive. However, after passing through comprehension and repentance, she realized that she loved the young Bolkonsky, but he, deeply offended, decided to devote himself to the service.
The depth of the image of Andrei Bolkonsky
Andrei Bolkonsky is one of the best and deepest images in Russian literature. Leo Nikolayevich Tolstoy with the lips of MI Kutuzov gave him a description: his path is the path of valor, the way of service.
The hereditary officer has all the data fora brilliant career: the mind, common sense, understanding the essence of military affairs, insight. In the beginning, he is selfish, unrestrained. However, spiritual purity, the desire to serve the Fatherland, to be a caring and resolute commander of the regiment entrusted to him determine the evolution of the life position of Andrei Bolkonsky.
To fully understand himself as a person, hecomes after injury, dying. For several years of the war, he has come to realize his being of such depth, to which adherents have followed for decades. He comprehends what God's love is.
In literary criticism and various writings one can often see the judgment that Tolstoy's beloved female image was Natasha Rostova. It is not true.
Favorite image of the classic - Princess Mary. It was in her that the writer put the most precious thing for himself - the way he himself represented his mother.
Leo Nikolayevich did not remember her. She died, giving birth to Lyova's sister when he was only 2 years old. Since childhood and for all life, the image of the mother has been sacred to the classics. When he tried to imagine her, she visualized a gentle, clean, with a soft, radiant gaze. The classic confessed that even when he was "at an age", he was "praying for her image" on a grave hour, and my mother helped.
We will not dwell on the relationshipMary and father (they were already covered above). Let us note that Princess Marya is a girl inclined to seclusion, to meditation, to virtue. Externally, it is "ordinary", however, until the moment when the interlocutor does not look into her eyes, the real beauty comes from her soul. The gratitude she expressed to Nicholas Rostov, who helped her avoid the capture of the French, deeply sank that in her heart. It was through their marriage that the family of the Bolkonsky and Rostovs joined together.
Comparison of the classics of these two worthy families, of course, has adorned one of the best novels in world literature.
Lev Tolstoy's novel "War and Peace" is a book,forcing to think and analyze. This is especially true now, when the surrounding life is filled with cliches, clichés. Today, often representatives of one social group imagine representatives of another primitive generalized.
The thinking person always has to see the truth. As an argument "for" careful study of human nature can be "War and Peace", where it is clearly seen in the example of the nobles that they are different, in particular, in their environment there are Bolkonsky, Dolokhovs, Rostovs and Kuragins.