What is a career? Kinds of career. Types and stages of a business career
Each person seeks to secure himselfcomfortable conditions for life. But just so money will not fall into our pocket. In order to earn them, you need to dedicate yourself to your profession, develop and grow to advance the career ladder.
Career and careerism in the system of business relations, definition
What is a career? The concept and types of career considered in the article allow to find out how a person promotes and by means of which it is possible to increase the rate of career growth.
Career - not only the type of occupation of a person, hispromotion in the professional field, but also the achievement of other goals set, the improvement of the situation in society. Also sometimes, this concept includes possible future changes in the field of work that occur over time as a result of gaining experience.
Careerism is the desire to improve one's ownposition in the professional sphere, increase career growth. Sometimes careerists call people who "walk on their heads", that is, they do not take into account feelings, generally accepted norms of morality, family ties. Careerists see their goal and go to it, no matter what. On the one hand, it positively characterizes a person - he is determined, courageous, responsible. On the other hand, this person is stale and unpredictable, because because of financial reward or promotion through the ranks, he is ready to sacrifice something precious. But if earlier the term "careerist" had a negative color, it has now become synonymous with the words "ambitious," "secured," "significant for society."
Place of career in people's lives
In a modern market economy, a measure is importantusefulness of the individual, his skills and abilities. Therefore, to move up people must be able to fully reveal their qualities in the professional field. Unfortunately, this is not easy. But still, every worker wants to succeed, for which scientists, reacting to the demand of society, study the types and stages of their career, differentiate classifications and theories.
Career from different perspectives
Donald Super, the most famous scientist,investigating career growth and the attendant phenomena, believes that a career is the totality of all social roles performed by an individual throughout his life. Successes in his career, in his opinion, depend on the "I-concept" - his own idea of himself.
Donald Sjuper considered such concept, as career, kinds of career from various positions:
- in the economic plan of a career are certain positions occupied by an individual in the hierarchy of economic relations;
- Sociologically, a career is a sequence of social roles of a person demonstrating the mobility of the individual, its fitness for certain conditions;
- psychologically, the career is a series of individual roles that he can play separately from each other, but also copes well with their simultaneous playing.
Holland believes that a career is the result of moving a person from one position in the company to another.
Tolstoy argues that this phenomenon is characterized not by actions of a person to improve the position in the company, but the point of view of the individual, the corresponding behavior.
Types of career in the organization
Any employee sets certaingoals in place of their professional activities. Some work only to receive wages, others need self-development, others want to develop, contribute to the professional growth of others, and receive decent wages for their work. Any purpose within a particular firm is defined as a business career.
There are such types of business career:
- Inside the organization - movement of an individual within a certain place of work. It takes place in various forms: horizontal, vertical and centripetal.
- Between organizations, in which an individual overcomes various stages: education, employment, advancement in the profession, care in connection with the retirement age.
- Professional career, divided into specialized and non-specialized. The first is that an individual workerovercomes all stages of a career in the sphere of his profession. In the second, a person changes his place of work within the organization in order to form his opinion about it from all sides.
- Vertical, consisting in moving up the career ladder.
- Horizontal, assuming frequent changes in professional interests and areas of activity, or finding a permanent position outside the hierarchy.
- Centripetal, where a person is gradually approaching the concentration of power in the company.
Types of this concept from a psychological point of view
Psychologists define the following types of professional careers:
- situational - sudden, events that do not depend on a person, which change the course of his work;
- "From the boss" - also a random phenomenon in which leadership takes an active part;
- "From the development of the object", where the wage worker himself unconsciously changes his destiny, developing the company as a whole;
- own career - active and successful work of individual individuals leads them to promotions by position;
- "By the corpses", in which a person is able, for the sake of achieving the desired goal, to overcome any obstacles, demolishing others in his path.
Career, career types and their use in work activities lead to various professional consequences.
What are the stages of a business career?
The types and stages of the career echo each other,because it is impossible to immediately achieve a transfer from one organization to another, to switch to better working conditions, payment and schedule. For this you need to go through certain stages.
- Preliminary - Obtaining education and relevant qualifications up to 25-28 years. At this time, the individual is looking for his calling or a favorite thing.
- Becoming - mastering a certain occupation, getting the right qualities and knowledge. Up to 30 years, the formation of independence at this stage.
- Promotion - increase of skill and experience. Perhaps a significant advancement in the career ladder. The individual constantly strives for self-improvement and gaining more weight in society, the career is rapidly changing. Career types at this stage may overlap. This stage is man-made in 30-45 years.
- Preservation - the consolidation of the existing situation continues up to 60 years. Skills and skills are improved due to accumulated experience and received education. It is still possible to advance in the service.
- Completion - Pre-retirement age forces you to look for a new person and to teach him. The career of a person is completed by about 65 years.
Criteria for a successful career
There are 2 main criteria for a successful career: objective and subjective. The first is considered on the basis of two values: promotion within the company or within the profession, regardless of the boundaries of the organizations. At the same time, the movement according to the hierarchy is usually more significant for a person, since it is associated with a change in wages and social status. The subjective criterion is determined by the individual himself. He compares the achieved result with the desired goal, analyzes the stages and types of career used to achieve the required post, and also focuses on the social group and its signs of success.
The concept of "career management"
Career, types of careers, changing it, the stages can becall career management. This concept is defined as goal-setting, way of long-term planning, monitoring of its professional level and means of its improvement, the importance of its skills and competencies. Analyzed the main types of career and the factors that affect it, for example, can see new ways of promotion.
Career management can also take place on the part of the company, which allows it to improve the quality of work of employees, and hence, the productivity of the enterprise as a whole.
The factors that influence the realization of a career
They can be divided into two groups. The first is the personal factors of the employee. What he is interested in, what motivates, what direction he prefers, increases the chances of success. But a good career is incompatible with insecurity and timidity, lack of commitment, orientation not on self-development, but on evaluation by the external environment, aspiration only to receive material benefits.
The second group includes the factors that dependfrom the relationship between the employee and the organization (its members). This is the impact of surrounding people on the promotion of a person in the service and the way the company works, its kind, tasks, features.