List of harmful occupations - briefly about the important. Information for Employees and Employers
According to statistics, in our days inRussia out of more than 12 million people employed in the industrial sector, more than 5 million (about 40%) work in enterprises related to harmful production. These are any production of nonferrous and ferrous metallurgy, mining industry, various types of engineering (economic, tractor, construction and road), enterprises for the production of building materials, logging and many others. There is a whole list of harmful occupations whose employees are at increased risk of injuries and occupational diseases.
What are these harmful factors? They are understood as conditions of professional activity that can lead to a decrease in working capacity, the risk of poisoning and the appearance of occupational diseases, which, in turn, can cause long-term adverse health effects, including the risk of producing unhealthy offspring.
Harmful factors of production are divided intofactors of the production environment and factors related to the labor process. Harmful factors of the production environment are physical (high and low temperatures, dust, noise, vibration), chemical (gassing, inhalation of harmful impurities, etc.) and biological nature. Biological factors include, first of all, the risk of infection with pathogenic microorganisms, a tubercle bacillus and other dangerous viral infections to which workers in the medical and veterinary fields are exposed.
Adverse factors of the work process are increased physical or nervous loads (high labor intensity).
The list of harmful occupations is very extensive, itis an officially approved document and provides for a number of additional benefits and compensations for workers of harmful production. According to the legislation of the Russian Federation, such employees enjoy the right to:
1. Paid additional leave, which must be provided annually for a period of not less than 6 working days (up to 36) or more, if this is stipulated by the internal policy of the enterprise. The legislative basis for the granting of such leave is the "List of industries, shops, professions and positions with harmful working conditions, the work in which entitles to additional leave and reduced working hours", which was adopted by the decree of the State Committee of the USSR in 1974 (N 298 / P- 22) and in the absence of other official acts is still the main regulatory document in this area. This list of preferential occupations is approved for individual industries and workshops, and also contains a list of harmful occupations common to all industries.
The employer has no right to refuse the employeegranting such leave or recalling the employee from leave, in addition, additional leave must be provided annually and can not be replaced by monetary compensation. The main categories of employees who are entitled to such leave are persons engaged in underground work or open work in mountain quarries, radioactively contaminated zones, health workers, veterinarians.
2. Shortened working hours, as well as breaks for rest and heating.
3. The payment of labor in an increased amount, as well as compensation for difficult working conditions.
4. Means of individual protection, medical nutrition, milk delivery.
5. Regular medical examinations, conducted on a mandatory basis at the expense of the employer of any form of ownership. When accepting a candidate, the employer is obliged to organize a preliminary preventive medical examination of the employee in order to identify possible contraindications to this type of work and to warn the candidate about the presence of unfavorable labor factors. Otherwise, the responsibility for the possible loss of disability by the employee with payment of material compensation and other consequences falls entirely on the employer. The list of harmful occupations provides for a number of health disorders, in which one or another activity is contraindicated.
6. Grace period for calculating pensions. It should be noted that persons on the list of harmful professions need to have in their work record a record of the name of the position in the work record in accordance with the officially accepted classification in order to avoid misunderstanding, and also to remember that the length of service is calculated according to the actually worked time. This includes periods of work when the employee was half or more working days in the appropriate conditions.