Websites - this is what?
Every day we use the Internet, but often notthink about what technologies are behind the simple and easy process of finding the right information and communication. And will you be able to accurately answer the question about what websites are? Or about what their kinds are and why they are displayed equally, what on the monitor with a diagonal of 21 inches, what is on the 7-inch smartphone? Read on, and you will learn the answers to these questions.
Web sites are collections of documents knownas a web page (or pages for short). They contain some information: images, text, video, audio, and more. The main page of the website, the so-called. file start, called home, from it you can go to all other pages. They are linked by hyperlinks, which are highlighted by a special type of font or represented by images. When you move the cursor to them, it takes the form of a hand with an extended index finger. After clicking on such items, the user moves to a new location. It can be another page, another place on the same page or another website.
Web pages are written in a language called languageHTML hypertext markup. Browsers (programs used for surfing the Internet, such as Internet Explorer, Firefox, Opera, Safari, Google Chrome, etc.), read it and display the necessary information.
How did it all start?
The earliest documented idea of a network thatwould unite computers around the world, was born in 1962. However, the first website was launched only after almost 30 years - on August 6, 1991. It was a page created by Tim Berners-Lee, dedicated to the conception of the World Wide Web, invented by him two years earlier. The site was owned by CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), which is the world's largest center for high-energy physics research. Unfortunately, the very first version of the page is now unavailable. But by entering the first website in the browser's search box, you can get to its 1992 version, which gives a good idea of where the history of websites began. Some content elements are clickable, but mostly navigation is done by typing commands from the keyboard.
Where is the website physically located?
It is clear that the Internet is a worldwide network, butthis does not mean that the information in it is in the air or in the wires. All web pages are located on certain servers, which are a network of powerful computers that store information about websites. This means that they all have a certain geographic location. For example, if the site server is in Moscow, and electricity is disconnected in this area, then the site will be unavailable from anywhere in the world. The place for placing web pages is sold and maintained in working order by the hosting provider. If the site is very large, then it can be on several servers, geographically located in different places.
Everything in its place
The volume of information on the Internet is growing fromawesome pace, how to ensure order in this chaos? The answer is simple - everything should have its own specific place, for which you need a unique website address. What it is? This is a combination of letters (Latin or Cyrillic alphabet) and numbers, which we enter in the appropriate line of the browser and get to the desired site. Some people are confused by the unfamiliar term "website url". What it is? It's simple, it's the same as the address. It consists of several parts:
- prefix http: // - means the type of protocol information transfer;
- www. - at the dawn of the Internet, all sites started with this famous abbreviation, but now it is used only as a tribute to the habit: you can open the desired page, that by entering this prefix, that without it;
- The site name is a unique name thatpurchased from a registrar. It consists of two parts separated by a dot. For example, fb. Is the name itself, and ru is the domain name in which it is located, in this case it is the domain of Russia.
Classification of sites
Depending on the functions performed, there are such types of web resources:
- Information site - used to post articles and materials of a certain direction or on a common theme. These are news portals, blogs, encyclopedias, etc.
- A corporate website is the site of an enterprise or organization. It can have two functions:
- Providing communication between employees of branches and branches to coordinate their activities;
- providing information about the company to potential customers. For existing customers, there may be a personal account in which you can track the status of purchases, the discount level, etc.
The development of such a resource is a long andtime-consuming task, so only large companies can afford them. Small businesses use business cards and portfolios in their activities. They are made quite simply, but they provide all the necessary information about the firm.
Commercial websites are online storesdifferent types: from multi-page hypermarkets to single-page sites that provide only one or several products for an order. Their main goal is to sell or receive an application for services.
Sites for communication are forums, social networks. As a rule, only registered users can perform actions on them.
Service websites are search engines, mails, hosting. Here you can also include Internet message boards.
Always nice and tidy
Sometimes we perceive as a fact that one andthe same site looks the same on the screen of a personal computer, that on a tablet or smartphone. And discontentedly frowning when, when changing the resolution of the monitor, the columns "run into" each other, the pictures close the text, and so on.
In order to avoid these inconveniences,developed adaptive web site design. This means that the resource was designed so that it looks the same on different devices. This is achieved due to the fact that the site receives information about the conditions in which it will be displayed when downloading: platform, screen resolution, its orientation.
Today, a huge number of differentdevices, and creating a separate version of the site for everyone would be difficult and expensive. But thanks to the technology of "rubber" mesh layout and the capabilities of modern programming languages, this task can be automated.
What is web site support?
This is a system of measures to ensure a stablethe work of the site and the performance of its functions, which is carried out by the administration of the site or provided by third parties for a fee. It happens of such kinds:
- Technical - checking the efficiency of the site,protection from virus attacks, timely renewal of domain name and hosting, monitoring of mailboxes, troubleshooting. It also includes the regular creation of backup databases.
- Information - filling the site, creating the appropriate content, updating the data.
- Marketing - includes work on the promotion of the site in search engines, advertising on the Internet.
- Design support - responsible for the appearance of the site, its correct display, selection or drawing of the desired images.