accounting of goods at the enterprise - methods and objectives.
For the correct formation of the sales price andin order to obtain objective figures for financial reporting, the enterprise requires a competent reflection of the value of the goods in the accounting and tax records. The technology by which goods are recorded, if retail trade, has some nuances that you need to know about.
To carry out accounting,an enterprise can independently choose the method by which to keep records of goods: at the purchase price or at the sales price. In reality, only one thing is important: fixing the chosen method in accounting policy. But in tax accounting, the goods must always be reflected, taking into account the purchase price. Is it possible to keep a record of the goods if the trade is wholesale? Yes, and even necessary, since this is required by the same tax inspection. The account is still kept at the same purchase price. In some cases, if the organization does not have a wholesale trade link and it only deals with retail trade, the accounting of goods can be made at a selling price.
At the present stage of trade, often the purchased andthe trading price is different for the minimum. Previously, buyers always paid the price that they were exposed and the selling price was much higher than the purchase price. There was no choice, as the sellers and the competition did not have. And now everything is not so. It should be noted that to date, the behavior of customers has radically changed. The analysis of buyers showed that it is the buyer who forces the seller to reduce the cost, to which he goes to offer a more favorable price in the market conditions. Due to this, there is a competitive struggle.
How to determine the cost of goods.Purchase cost - all costs associated with the acquisition of goods in general - this is called its actual cost. In accounting and tax accounting, the cost of the purchased goods is formed in different ways. This means that some of the costs are added to their actual cost. And given the rules of tax accounting - on the contrary. However, the nuance is important: if the cost of delivery is not included in the cost of goods, the tax accounting requires their distribution among the sold and unrealized goods. To meet this condition, the average percentage of the direct (transport) expenditure for the current time is determined. It should be noted that all necessary actions are described in the Tax Code and are strictly regulated by them.
How are direct costs (transportation)for the current time: to the costs of the delivery of goods that the enterprise incurred in the current period, the entire amount of transportation costs attributable to the rest of the goods at the beginning of the period is added. The purchase price of each item sold during a month is added to the purchase price of the balance of the unrealized goods at the end of the month. The average percentage of direct flow is calculated. To do this, the amount of transportation costs is divided by the cost of the goods. The average percentage of direct consumption is multiplied by the prices of the rest of the goods at the end of the month. Thus, it is determined which transport costs fall on the unsold product. During the taxation of income, only those transport costs that relate to the goods sold can be considered. To calculate this figure, it is necessary to subtract from the usual amount of direct consumption the one that is accounted for by the unsold product. This method allows to reduce to a considerable extent the tax burden on the firm.
Now about the trade margin.The selling price of the goods includes purchase price and trade margin. The sales price structure includes the planned profitability of the enterprise and VAT. The trade margin and the retail price of the goods are reflected in the special documentation, called the register of the retail price. During the sale of the product, the mark-up is written off. It often happens that the goods must be revalued (discounted or discounted). After the revaluation, the goods are re-registered and inventory inventories, acts are made. They indicate: the date of the change in value; names of revalued goods; how much overestimated goods; the previous price of goods; a new price for goods; the amount of revaluation (the difference between the prices of goods in the old and the new price). Based on these figures, a new selling price is formed, on which the goods are dispensed.