Tatar ornament as a manifestation of culture
The Tatar people has an ancient and colorfulculture. His life, sorrows and joys, wars and alliances, way of life, beliefs could not but be reflected in creativity. Because the people are ancient, history and culture are centuries old. By its way of life and worldview, the nation was different from the tribes that settled nearby and was isolated. Therefore, for example, the Tatar ornament used to decorate clothes, household items, houses is original and original.
Types of ornament and types of motifs
The way of life of the people has significantly affected the patterns,which decorated various products. Predominantly the Tatar national ornament has a pronounced influence of ancient agriculture. But if you carefully study the work of masters, you can see that the influence of cattle breeding culture of the nomadic ancestors of the people is also manifested.
Tatar designs and ornaments have three types of motifs: geometric, floral-floral and zoomorphic. A characteristic feature is their contour completion.
Floral-floral ornament and its use
Patterns have been used by masters from time immemorial inmany spheres of applied art: architecture, embroidery, painting, wood carving. Tatar ornament with floral and plant motifs is the most common. Wizards create both simple forms and complex bouquets. The colors used for the ornament are bright, rich and well combined. The motifs are stylized and have many interpretations. An important role is played by the order in which the elements of the pattern are arranged and how they are combined.
In floral-floral motifs, whichare used for creativity, there are three directions: steppe, meadow and garden. Depending on where the master or master was living, some or other Tatar patterns and ornaments prevailed. For the steppe direction, motifs depicting stylized poppies, tulips, forget-me-nots, carnations are more typical. Meadow motifs are full of flowers of dog rose, bell, chamomile, cornflowers. Garden directions were typical for urban settlements. Mostly represented were dahlias, chrysanthemums, roses, asters. The most common are two flowers, which uses the Tatar ornament. Tulip and cloves are the main motives.
Geometrical and zoomorphic motifs
Zoomorphic drawings are practically not used.This is explained by the requirements of religion, so that the Tatar ornament very rarely contains images of animals. However, masters, who still decide on zoomorphic motifs in their products, stylize them so that it is not always possible to understand which beast is depicted.
Often, a geometric Tatar ornament is notis an independent element of the product, but performs auxiliary functions. The use of shapes depends on what the image is applied to. For example, geometric motifs prevail in weaving, and in embroidery - floral, located with geometric accuracy.
Elements used in ornament. Their capabilities. Methods of transfer of ideas of the master
First of all, it is worth paying attention to howused in the Tatar ornament tulip. It is presented in the form of a pointed shamrock with various degrees of bending. Less common pjatilistniki. Wavy lines under the hand of the master overgrown with leaves and form a "grapevine."
On one branch there may be grapes, andmeander, and dahlia, and cloves. Tatar ornament with geometric motifs uses both simple figures (triangles, rhombuses, circles, squares), and complex (hexagonal rosettes, stepped figures, eight-pointed stars).
The vegetable ornament has one morethe distinguishing feature is the asymmetry of the elements. On one branch flowers perfectly coexist, which in nature never grow near or blossom in different months of the year.
The importance of tulips in culture and ornamentation
Each nation has its own symbol, which hasmeaning only for him. Many masters use the Tatar ornament, in which the main motive is the tulip. For this people, it is, above all, a symbol of rebirth. Tulip is on the flag of Tatarstan.
Secondly, the tulip is inextricably linked withreligious views of the Muslim world. The flower is associated with the name of Allah. The name of the plant in Arabic consists of the same letters as the name of the god of the Muslim world. From the point of view of the numerological system of Abadj (each letter has its own number), the sum of the letters in the words "tulip" and "Allah" is the same and equal to 66.
Rosa also finds frequent mapping in Tatarornaments. And again for religious reasons: it is a symbol of the Prophet Muhammad. And although the flowers are strongly stylized, a person who understands the symbols and culture of the Tatar people will be able to read the Tatar ornament.