Writer, dissident, Soviet political prisoner Marchenko Anatoly Tikhonovich: biography, features of activity and interesting facts
Marchenko Anatoly Tikhonovich is one of manyPolitical prisoners of the Soviet period, who died while serving time. This man did a lot to save the country from political persecution. For that he paid first freedom, and then life Anatoly Tikhonovich Marchenko. Biography, awards and interesting facts about the writer - all this will be discussed in detail in the article.
First conclusion and escape
Anatoly was born in Siberia in 1938. His father was a railway worker. The future writer graduated from 8 classes, after which he worked in the oil fields, mines and geological exploration expeditions. In the beginning of 1958, after a mass brawl in the working dormitory, he was arrested. Sam Marchenko Anatoly did not participate in the fight, but he was sentenced to two years in prison. A year later, Anatoly Tikhonovich escaped from prison. And soon after his escape to the colony came the news of his release, as well as the removal of his conviction. The decision was made by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. In the period from 1959 to 1960, Anatoly Marchenko wandered without documents around the country, content with casual earnings.
An attempt to leave the USSR, a new arrest
Marchenko tried to flee the Soviet UnionIn the autumn of 1960, however, he was detained at the border. The court sentenced him to 6 years in prison for treason. It happened on March 3, 1961. Marchenko served time in the political camps of Mordovia, as well as in Vladimir prison. In conclusion, he fell ill, lost his hearing.
Acquaintance with J. Daniel and others
Anatoly Tikhonovich was released in November 1966of the year. He went free already seasoned in the struggle for his rights, a convinced opponent of the current regime and the ideology that serves him. Anatoly Marchenko settled in the Vladimir region (city of Alexandrov), worked as a loader. While in the camp, he met with Julius Daniel. This writer brought him with representatives of the dissident intelligentsia of the city of Moscow.
New friends, including LarissaBogoraz, his future wife, helped Anatoly Tikhonovich implement what he had in mind - to create a book dedicated to Soviet political prisons and camps of the 1960s. "My testimony" was completed in the autumn of 1967. They became very popular in samizdat, and after a while they were published abroad. This work has been translated into a number of European languages.
"My testimony" and their price
Detailed memoirs certificate of political campsdestroyed illusions that were common both in the USSR and in the West. After all, many at that time believed that gross arbitrariness, open violence and political repression towards dissidents remained in the past after Stalin's death. Marchenko was ready to be arrested for this book. However, the KGB leadership did not dare to produce it, the author planned to expel him abroad. They even prepared a decree to deprive Marchenko of Soviet citizenship. But this plan was not realized for some reason.
Publicistic activity, new terms
Anatoly Tikhonovich in 1968 for the first time triedhimself as a publicist. The main theme of several of his texts in the genre of "open letters" was inhuman treatment of political prisoners. In the same year, on July 22, he wrote an open letter addressed to several foreign and Soviet newspapers. It spoke of the threat of suppression of the Prague Spring by military methods. A few days later Marchenko was arrested in Moscow. The charge brought against him was the violation of the passport regime. The fact is that the former political prisoner was not allowed to live in the capital in those years. On August 21, 1968, Marchenko was sentenced to a year in prison. He served this term in the Perm region (Nyrobsky criminal camp).
On the eve of his release, a new case was initiatedagainst Anatoly Tikhonovich. He was accused of disseminating defamatory slanderous fabrications among the prisoners. In August 1969, Marchenko was sentenced to two years of camps.
After liberation, in 1971, AnatolyTikhonovich settled in the Kaluga region (Tarusa) along with L. Bogoraz, who by that time had become his wife. Marchenko was under administrative supervision.
The first hunger strike Marchenko
In 1973, the authorities again wanted to sendAnatoly abroad. He was forced to write an application for emigration, threatening a period in case of refusal. This threat was fulfilled in February 1975. Marchenko Anatoly was sentenced to four years of exile for violating the rules of administrative supervision. Immediately upon issuing this decision Anatoly Tikhonovich went on a hunger strike and held it for two months. Then he served a link in the Irkutsk region (the village of Chun).
Themes of journalism, MHG
Marchenko, even when in exile, continuedpublicistic and literary activity. He described the history of the new case brought against him, as well as the brutal procedure for the staging in his book titled "From Tarusa to the Chun", which was published in New York in 1976.
Another cross-cutting theme created by Marchenkojournalism are the dangers of the "Munich" policy of pacifying the USSR to Western democracies. This is described in detail in the article of Anatoly Tikhonovich "Tertium datur - the third given", created in 1976 together with L. Bogoraz. The authors criticize the direction within which international relations developed in the first half of the 1970s. They oppose not so much the idea of detente as such, but rather against the acceptance by the West of a Soviet understanding of this idea.
In May 1976, Marchenko was included in the MHG(Moscow Helsinki Group), but did not take an active part in her work, in part because she was in exile, partly because of disagreement to rely on the Final Act adopted at the Helsinki meeting.
Start a new book
Anatoly Marchenko was released in 1978(the time for transfer and preliminary detention under Soviet law is counted on time as one day for three). Marchenko settled in the Vladimir region (city of Karabanovo), worked in the boiler room as a stoker. In the historical collection of samizdat "Memory" (third edition of 1978) a collection of materials appeared, timed to coincide with the tenth anniversary of the release of "My Testimony." In addition, it was placed the second chapter of the new book Marchenko "Live like everyone else." This work describes the history of the creation of "My Testimony."
"Live like everyone" and political and journalistic articles
In early 1981, Marchenko Anatoly continuedwork on the book "Live like everyone else." He managed to prepare for publication its part, covering the period from 1966 to 1969. At the same time, Anatoly Tikhonovich created a number of articles of a political and journalistic nature. One of them is devoted to the threat of military intervention by the USSR in the affairs of Poland after the Solidarity revolution.
The last arrest of Marchenko
The sixth time Marchenko Anatoly was arrested 17March 1981. This arrest was his last. This time the authorities did not want to fabricate a "non-political" accusation. Anatoly Tikhonovich was accused of agitation and propaganda against the USSR. Immediately after the arrest, Marchenko said that he considered the KGB and the CPSU to be criminal organizations and would not participate in the investigation. In early September 1981, the Vladimir Oblast Court sentenced him to 10 years in the camps, and to a subsequent exile for a period of 5 years.
Andrei Sakharov in his article under the title"To save Anatoly Marchenko" called this verdict "frank reprisal" for books about the GULAG (Marchenko told about it among the first) and "undisguised revenge" for the honesty, steadfastness and independence of character and mind.
last years of life
Writer Marchenko Anatoly Tikhonovich was serving a termpunishment in the political camps of Perm. The administration constantly subjected him to harassment. Marchenko was deprived of correspondence and visits, for the slightest fault he was put in a punishment cell. It was very difficult in the last years of life to such a writer as Anatoly Marchenko. The author's books, naturally, were banned. In December 1984, the officers of the guard brutally beat Anatoly Tikhonovich. In October 1985, for "systematic violations of the regime," Marchenko was transferred to the more stringent conditions of the Chistopol prison. Here he was almost completely isolated. In such conditions, hunger strikes remained the only possibility of resistance. The last of them, the longest (lasting 117 days), Marchenko began on August 4, 1986. The demand of Anatoly Tikhonovich was to stop the bullying of political prisoners in the Soviet Union, their release. Marchenko stopped the hunger strike on November 28, 1986. A few days after that, he suddenly felt sick. Was sent to the local hospital on December 8 Anatoly Marchenko. His biography ends on the same day, in the evening. It was then that the writer died. According to the official version, death occurred as a result of cardiopulmonary insufficiency.
Victory A.T. Marchenko
Marchenko won, but he failed to learn aboutthis. Soon after his death, the political camps were liquidated. This became not only an inevitable business, but also an urgent one, as Daniel noted. December 11, 1986 Anatoly Tikhonovich was buried in the cemetery in Chistopol. After 5 days (after A. Sakharov, exiled academician, M. Gorbachev called), a new period of the history of our country began. Unfortunately, during life Anatoliy Marchenko did not wait for the award. In 1988 he was posthumously awarded the prize. A. Sakharov.
His works began to be published at home with1989. Anatoly Marchenko, whose books are read to this day, struggled with his injustice all his life. You should pay tribute to this great man.