Social stratification and mobility
Social stratification and mobility areimportant elements in the existence of any society. Let's try to consider these definitions in more detail. Social stratification is a certain hierarchical system, a vertical, formed from different classes and strata of the population. Even in ancient times, people noticed that the division of labor leads to greater productivity. There were different statuses and classes of people. That is, social inequality has arisen, which is the basis of stratification. However, not all so simple.
Social stratification and mobility is the onea system whose structure is quite variable. Karl Marx believed that the basis for the appearance of the vertical is the ownership of property. He divided people not into three, as is now generally accepted, but into two main layers. In his works he singled out a class of proprietors, in particular, they are the bourgeoisie, slave owners and feudal lords, as well as the proletariat, to which people who sell their labor can be attributed. Over time, Karl Marx's approach to vertical theory began to be considered rather narrow and not so universal.
The theory of social stratification and socialmobility was also worked out by M. Weber. He significantly expanded the number of signs, focusing on which a person can be attributed to a particular class. In particular, these are criteria such as income level, ownership of property, membership in political parties, social prestige.
The considered vertical is supported atvarious mechanisms. In the past, they were quite tough. The transition from one class to another was practically impossible. The principle of continuity was observed. For example, a man born in a slave's family could become only a slave. At the moment, social stratification and mobility are characterized by milder mechanisms. In the modern world, a person can move from one class to another without obstacles. However, such a transition will require a lot of effort. In particular, it is purposefulness, self-improvement, certain abilities, educational level.
It is worth noting that a strong social stratificationcan lead to a constant increase in tension in the poorest strata of society, and, as a consequence, to revolutions. To prevent such negative situations, there is a universal mechanism - the predominance of the middle class. That is, with a large percentage of people generally satisfied with their economic situation, the risk of revolutions is reduced because of the smaller number of dissatisfied.
Social stratification and social mobilitycan differ in their structure. However, there are common features. Social mobility is a change in a person's social status. It is divided into two main categories. The vertical level can be either ascending or descending. For example, promotion on the career ladder, or the ruin of the company. The horizontal level denotes the movement of an individual within a single social group. For example, the change of profession, moving to another city.
Mobility can be subdivided in another wayprinciple. There are also two main categories. Intergenerational mobility is a change in one's social status towards parents. For example, a person from a poor family becomes a banker. There is also intrasocial mobility. This definition indicates a change in the status of an individual during his or her life. It can also be a transition from intellectual to physical activity, or vice versa.
In general, social stratification and mobility - this is a fairly positive phenomenon due to the emergence of people's incentives to develop, grow professionally.</ p>