All social phenomena and processes possessa characteristic internal structure. The most complex social system is society, and people act as its elements. Their social activities are dictated by individual qualities, occupied by social status, performed functions, social values and established by this system.
The social system is represented in the following aspects:
- a lot of individuals whose joint interaction is dictated by general circumstances (village, city, labor collective, family, etc.);
- social community;
- hierarchy of statuses and social functions,
- social organization;
- a set of values and norms,
All aspects are closely intertwined. Therefore, we can say that the social system is an organic unity of three aspects: culture, social community and social organization.
In the social community, social processesoccur precisely because of its base - the totality of people with the conditions of their life activity (interests, needs, education, etc.). The social community is functioning and developing on the basis of the interaction of individuals and social ties.
Social communication, in turn, is expressedcompatibility of the functioning of elements or objects. Two types of links are distinguished here: genetic (structural, causal) and formal (touching only the planes of knowledge).
Social communication is usually understood as a set offactors that determine the joint activities of individuals in individual, specific societies to achieve certain goals. Such connections are usually lengthy and do not depend on personal qualities. These are the connections between individuals and the processes around them and phenomena occurring around them. Such connections lead to new social relations. Thus, a social system is formed, the concept of which is closely connected with the notion of "social structure". The social structure divides society into so-called layers (by position, by mode of production). The main elements in it are social communities, classes, groups (socio-territorial, socio-demographic, ethnic, professional).
The social system bears the sum of allsocial processes and phenomena that are in bonds and relations with each other and create a common object of social policy. Elements of this system form separate processes and phenomena. The social structure enters into the sphere of the phenomena of the social system, combining two components: social composition with social ties.
An important goal of public policy is tobuilding a system of state support, the essence of which is to subsidize certain categories of society, through the allocation of budgetary funds or the use of extra-budgetary funds.
The social security system (JI) originated in the thirties of the last century. The first mention of it appeared in the US, initiated by the "Act
on social security "in 1935.
The right to JI, which is enshrined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation, is reflected in the form of a set of legislative measures and interrelated organizations. Protection of low-income and disabled people is conducted in two directions:
- social help;
- social Security.
JI includes pensions, benefits, vocationaltraining of disabled people with their further employment, medical care and rehabilitation of disabled people, etc. The root of the effectiveness of the work lies in a well thought out financing mechanism. Insurance funds collected through taxes are a source of social insurance benefits. In addition, appropriations and budgetary funds are used.
The task of social services is to provide people in need with all forms of social services.