Natural unemployment and its forms
Unemployment is the social and economic phenomenon, in which part of the active and able-bodied population does not find work and therefore becomes "superfluous".
The causes of unemployment and manifestation are different, therefore, it is customary to subdivide them into species.
In the world it is accepted to consider three basic types of this problem: frictional and structural (natural unemployment) and cyclical unemployment.
Under the friction understand temporary unemploymentpeople due to a voluntary transition to another job, this is due to the search and expectation of a more suitable place. Most often, this situation is found among people who choose work that is appropriate for their skills and personal preferences.
The magnitude of this kind of unemployment depends on the vacancies, as well as on the effectiveness and speed with which people find the job that suits them.
Structural unemployment depends on technological shifts in production, changing the structure of demand for a certain strength. Such unemployment is usually forced.
Cyclic is sometimes called unemployment of insufficient demand. It is a consequence of the reduction in aggregate demand for labor.
Intermediate between the frictional and the cyclical is seasonal unemployment. It is influenced by natural factors, and it is easily predicted.
This type of unemployment is inherent in tourismbusiness, agriculture, some fisheries (fishing, gathering berries, rafting, hunting), construction industry. At the same time, intensive work continues for several months or weeks a year, and the rest of the time is observed "simple".
Monetary scientist from America M. Friedman frictional and structural types of unemployment combined into a single concept of "natural unemployment". In the economy, full employment implies the existence of a situation that is stable for a long time. It is called normal unemployment.
Natural unemployment is a reflectionequilibrium in the labor market with absolute employment, in which case the number of people seeking work is equal to the number of vacancies. If the unemployment rate actually exceeds the natural one, the balance in the labor market is disrupted, cyclical unemployed people appear who want to work, but who do not find a place because of a reduction in demand for workers during periods of decline in production.
Natural unemployment in most developedof the countries is 4-6% and its level has been steadily growing in recent years due to the high social security of the citizens of these countries (increase in unemployment benefits, minimum wage growth, easing of claims to those who receive benefits). This leads to a long search for a place, an increase in demand for the proposed work.
The tendency towards an increase in the level of natural unemployment is associated with an increase in the composition of the workers' share of women and youth, as well as frequent shifts in the structure of the economy.
There is also a notion of regional unemployment, it appears in certain regions because of mass closure of enterprises.
Under the latent unemployment understand suchThe state when people formally work, but in reality they occupy an extra place. The substantial scale of hidden unemployment is inherent in the modern economy of Russia and Bashkortostan. This is due to the large number of defense and large town-forming enterprises. In anticipation of federal orders, defense enterprises are not restructured or closed, employees of such enterprises are not dismissed, but are listed as on administrative leave, or appear at work several times a month. In the event that the enterprise belongs to the city-forming, mass lay-offs lead to an aggravation of the social situation in the region.</ p>