Space pistol TP-82 (photo). Analog TP-82 called "Vepr"
Astronaut - a profession, not without purpose envelopeda halo of romance and heroism. Perhaps there was not a boy in the USSR who would not dream of becoming one. The work of space workers is associated with constant danger, not only in space ... The landing of the descending capsule is a poorly predictable case. People can be anywhere, and therefore they may need protection. In the USSR, a specialized protective equipment was created - TP-82.
What it is?
First proposed the creation of such weaponsthe legendary Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov. In 1979, he specifically visited Tula Arms Factory for this purpose. He told the gunsmiths about the incident that happened in 1965: then the descent vehicle of the Voskhod-2 spacecraft landed in an unplanned location. More precisely, in the remote forests of the Perm region. The cosmonauts were looking for almost two days, during which people had a hard time.
In the forests of those there are many predators that wouldwere clearly not averse to trying fresh cosmonauts. The situation was absurd because the latter would have absolutely nothing to defend in case of an attack. Leonov noted that, provided that the cosmonauts had at least some specialized weapons that could be repulsed from animals, they would feel much calmer. Already in 1981, the position of the man who first went into open space, found broad official support. In 1982, the TP-82 was officially included in the rescue kit of all space expeditions.
The main purpose of weapons
Weapons were created in Tula. For the first time the pistol went into space with the crew of the Soyuz T-6 spacecraft in 1982. Four years later, it was officially included in the crew of long-range aircraft. The issue was completed in 1987. There is information that the TP-82 was used by Russian cosmonauts until 2007. By the end of this period, the period for the storage of ammunition that had been manufactured in the Soviet Union was simply over. It was considered inexpedient to resume their production.
Main technical characteristics
As we said, this is a weaponthree-barreled non-automatic pistol. The two upper barrels are designed for more or less usual 32-caliber, while the lower one is charged with a special cartridge 5.45x40 mm. Recall that the Kalashnikov assault rifles use ammunition 5.45x39 mm. For the adjustment of the lower trunk a special firing device is used, the force of which is regulated by three bolts.
Evacuation of shooting cartridges from the 32nd caliberoccurs with the help of an ordinary extractor. To throw out the cartridge sleeve of the 5.45x39 cartridge, you need to press a special button of the spring extractor, which is located at the bottom of the weapon. Thus, the TP-82 pistol is quite simple, and therefore when dealing with it, no problems for astronauts, who were mostly military pilots, did not arise.
Sights and sighting devices
The peculiarity of the trigger mechanism is that the rightThe trigger only answers for the right smooth stem, while the left can be switched at any time between the left and bottom trunks. Under the trigger guard there is a fuse button, locking the hammers. Sighting device space gun TP-82 has the simplest: mechanical, open type. This is done so that even in the most difficult conditions to minimize the probability of shooting down the fire.
Taking advantage of Tokarev's experience, specialistsThe use of a butt-holster was envisaged. This simple device allows you to significantly improve the accuracy of shooting. Mounted holster to the bottom of the pistol grip. But this is not the main secret. The fact is that inside the holster, in special rigid scabbards, there was ... a real machete, only a relatively small size. Moreover, it was recommended to conduct the shooting exactly when it was inside the holster, since in this case the butt received the necessary rigidity. In a word, the TP-82 cosmonaut's pistol is a very unusual and extremely versatile weapon.
Characteristics of cartridges
The second species, SP-P, is signaling. As its base, a simple hunting cartridge was also used. Actually, in terms of its design it is a special light-and-smoke checker with a long burning time.
Finally, the SP-P bullet cartridge. For its equipment, a half-shell bullet of 5.45 mm caliber is used, crimped in a 40 mm sleeve. The core was made of hardened tool steel, a small hole was drilled to increase the expansive action in the bullet nose. According to the test results, the wounds from such an ammunition were several times more dangerous than from a standard automatic cartridge.
On the range of effective shooting
It was reported that when using a bulletthe range of effective shooting could reach about 200 meters, in the case of the use of fractions, this value was reduced to 40 meters. The ammunition included exactly 40 cartridges: ten SP-D and SP-C. All the rest are bullet. Ammunition fit in a special canvas pouches. The main difference between all these cartridges from their military and hunting prototypes was their maximum reliability, preserved even in conditions of low pressure, high and low temperatures, humidity.
Throughout the period of stateTest pistol TP-82, a photo of which you can see in the article, was intensively used in the role of hunting weapons. It was found out that with its help it is possible to extract practically all categories of small game, and also birds, in shooting according to which TP proved to be especially good without special work. The rifled barrel could be used for the production of wild boars, goats, gazelles and even moose, provided that the animal's weight reached no more than 200 kilograms.
The testers were so impressed with the possibilitiesweapons, that the latter received the apt nickname "poacher's dream". It was reported (unofficially) that when using conventional hunting cartridges of 32 caliber with an increased hinge of gunpowder and a large shot, it was possible to easily obtain moose weighing significantly more than two centners.
Overall efficiency of use
Very good was the signal cartridge. The noisy flash that arose when it was used gave a significant chance that people will be able to be noticed by search units. In short, TP-82 is a weapon that could be a great help for astronauts who found themselves in a remote taiga. Even the machete, which "hid" in the holster, proved to be great.
Alexander Herman, who held the posthead of training cosmonauts for survival, told that in two days (the standard duration of training), his wards, with the help of this blade, cut down a few cubic meters of wood. So the machete could be useful even when building a temporary home!
What is the overall impression of TP-82? The cosmonaut's weapon looks very solid and solid, it is made qualitatively. All secondary parts, such as holster, pouch and machete, have the lowest possible weight. Weapons control units are made according to ergonomic schemes, even a person who has undergone minimal training can easily and easily manage them. Fuses provide complete safety of handling even with loaded weapons, completely eliminating the likelihood of a random shot. Specialists-gunsmiths liked the soft descent, the grip of the hilt and the verified balance of the pistol.
The hard need to attach the butt to thethere is no shooting, so if necessary, it was possible to start defending immediately, without spending too much time preparing. It was reported that without a holster it was advisable to fire only shot, at short distances.
Finally, the tri-barreled cosmonaut's pistolThe TP-82 was adopted in 1986. Soviet cosmonauts have always armed themselves, including during joint training with Americans and Europeans and missions. Release of weapons was discontinued in the late 80's. The official reason is the accumulation of a sufficient number of pistols. The Tula people themselves say that during the disintegration of the state, the Kremlin authorities simply did not want to finance a "stupid" project.
The exact number of pistols collected so faris unknown. It is assumed that the volume of output is unlikely to exceed 30-110 units (which is clearly very small). If you want to see this rare pistol firsthand, then you can visit the artillery museum in St. Petersburg, the space museum that is in the city of Moscow, or go to Tula.
For not too official information, there was(or there is) an analog of TP-82 called "Vepr". In reality, no one saw this pistol, there are no photos of it. Presumably, this ersatz was issued with a less strict OTK and was intended for commanders of long-range aviation. However, all this is just a rumor, as there is practically no official data on this weapon. Whatever it was, but Vepr was equipped with the same special cartridges, and therefore in 2007 the period of use of these weapons (even if it was) also came to an end.