Iron Lady of British politics Margaret Thatcher: biography, political activities and interesting facts
Margaret Thatcher - one of the most famouspoliticians of the XX century. Her work as prime minister of Great Britain lasted 3 terms, which in total was 11 years. It was a difficult time - then the country was in a deep socio-economic crisis, England was called "a sick man in Europe." Margaret managed to revive the former authority of the foggy Albion and provide a preponderance of power in favor of the Conservatives.
"Thatcherism" in politics
This term denotes the attitudes that were characteristic of Margaret Thatcher in ideology, morality, politics. When she was a prime minister, she tried to put them into practice.
Its main characteristic can be called "lawon inequality ". Politician argued that a person inherent in the movement to something good, better than he has at the moment. Thatcher advocated free enterprise and initiative to gain benefits. However, at the same time, she condemned the "passion for money for the sake of money."
For "tetcherism" equality is a mirage.And the right to inequality, in turn, pushes people to stand out, improving themselves and improving the quality of their own lives. That is why she did not condemn wealth, but, on the contrary, called on all citizens of the country to make efforts to increase it in order to further improve their living standards.
Margaret Thatcher (Roberts) was born in 1925 13October in Grantema, near London in the northern direction. Her family lived modestly, without excesses, one might say, ascetic for the way of people of Western Europe. The house had no running water, the amenities were also on the street. The family had two daughters, Muriel - the eldest, and Margaret - younger than her 4 years.
The eldest in everything was like her mother - Beatrice,The youngest was an exact replica of Alfred's father. She was known as his favorite, so from early childhood the parent began to instill in her all the qualities that then in the adult life she was greatly helped and turned into a symbol of the era of conservatism in the UK of the 20th century.
At the age of 5, Margaret began taking lessonspianist, and in 4 years won a poetic competition. At the award, the school principal told Margaret that she was very lucky, to which she replied: "It's not luck, it's a merit." From an early age she grew up as a debater, therefore she was a regular member of the discussion club and in the early years answered the questions she answered with full, meaningful answers, unlike her contemporaries who "get rid" of some interjections.
Father - ideal for Margaret
Alfred had an elementary education, but differeda craving for new knowledge, as a result of which I did not spend a day without reading. This quality he planted and his daughter. Together they went to the library and took two books for a week to read them one at a time.
It was the father who planted a little Margaretthe quality of being unlike at all. He told her that a man should "lead for himself", and not be "led." For this it was necessary to work day in and day out, thinking about the future and about your position in society. Alfred repeated many times: you do not need to act only because the others do it.
Her father was an ideal for her, little Margaretbelieved that he knew everything. Its characteristic feature was the thirst for knowledge. She had a craving for new information, experience. Margaret with her father went to meetings of the council, acquiring a taste for politics, theatricality and eloquence. Then she was 10 years old.
For many years Margaret Thatcher remembered her father's instructions, and went with them through life. It was he who brought up in the child those foundations that today the whole world calls the capacious term "tetcherism".
The diverse education of Thatcher
Growing up, Margaret remained the sameconservative, as in early childhood. The reason for this was the views on the life of her beloved father. He was a representative of Protestantism, with all the ensuing consequences, besides being a businessman-grocer. She never went to any dance or movie screenings, but she started working early in the storehouse of the Roberts family store, where she got acquainted with the basics of business and making a profit.
At the same time, she showed a sense of purpose -for 4 years she learned Latin, for admission to the most prestigious women's college of Oxford - Somerville. Her roommate recalled that Margaret was getting up when it was still dark and trying to learn something. The second course was hard: she fell in love with the count's son, but his mother brutally rejected the girl, saying that the daughter of a simple grocer is not like her son.
Ambitious girl more and more understood that herthe soul is conquered by politics. Margaret Thatcher actively participated in political debates and in those years joined the Conservative Association, and in 1946 became her first female president.
In 1947, she graduated from Oxford College with a bachelor's degree in chemistry. Immediately found the work of a researcher-researcher of celluloid plastics in the city of Mannington.
In 1953 she received a law degreeand the next 5 years mastered it in practice, having worked as an attorney. A little later she became a specialist in the field of taxation, having studied this branch in perfection.
Thus, the formation of the future policyIt was quite versatile: she knew the basics of building a business, she was fluent in information about legislation and taxes, in addition she was well versed in scientific processes, and most importantly, Margaret Thatcher's reforms were already in the days when she was still far from the prime minister's chair.
Strangely, but after graduationMargaret knew perfectly well where she would continue her studies, in Oxford. Why there? Yes, because all future ministers of Great Britain studied in this educational institution. There she did not waste time in vain, joining the KAUU - the Conservative Association of Oxford University. From this began her ascent of the political Olympus.
Already then she had a desire to runin the estate-representative body, but for this it was necessary first to become president of KAUU. And Thatcher became it in 1946. This status began to take a very long time, she slept for 3-4 hours a day. The moment came when she had to choose between politics and education - she chose the first. Therefore it is no wonder that Margaret Thatcher, an excellent student and student in the past, defended the diploma in "satisfactory", and she was awarded a bachelor's degree of the 2nd class.
Denis Thatcher is a guide to big politics
In 1948, the candidature of Margaret was approvedto participate in the parliamentary elections, however, in Dartford historically Labor prevailed, since the city was industrial. Therefore, she lost her first elections, but this further led the woman to further active work.
At the same time, she met DenisTetcher (it is on the surname of her husband she is known all over the world). In 1951 he proposed to her. The man was 33 years old, and he was a little older than her. Denis was a businessman and therefore could provide a young spouse with everything necessary. Now she could devote herself entirely to politics, and Margaret Thatcher's reforms (the UK needed them at that time) had been breeding for a long time.
1953 became for her a "white" life period.Twins were born twins, and four months after that, Margaret passed the final examination and became a lawyer. Specializing in her practice, she chose the tax sphere, having studied it thoroughly, that in the future the policy will be very useful.
Summarizing the chapter, it should be said that Denis played a huge role in the political growth of Margaret. After the wedding, she could completely surrender to her favorite business - politics.
Road to Parliament
In the late 1950s Margaret with a new energybegan to work on parliamentary elections. The most difficult thing was to find a district from which you can nominate yourself. She began with the county of Kent, but there she became the second, which closed her way to parliament. In another district of the same county, the situation developed in a similar way. At the same time Finchley refused to run for parliament. The work has begun! The applicants for this place were 200 people. A written competition was held, following the results of which 22 participants were selected. Then an oral presentation was held, after which only 4 candidates remained, including Margaret Thatcher. She was elected as a candidate from the district, which meant her actual election to parliament.
In 1959 she got into the English Parliament -the way to big politics was opened. That time was very unfavorable for the conservatives, the economic difficulties began, Prime Minister Macmillan fell ill and resigned. And the parliamentary elections of 1964 "seated" the conservatives on the opposition's bench. And Margaret herself in the same year was appointed shadow Minister for Housing.
The 1970s were difficult for the economy andinternal situation in the UK. In the postwar period, the country began to retreat back in its development and was no longer included even in the top ten leaders, although it was always in the forefront.
In 1974, the question of choosing a chapter was raisedconservatives. Margaret Thatcher put forward her candidacy, becoming a rival for the current leader E. Heath. Elections shocked him: from 276 to 130 votes were given in favor of Thatcher and only 19 for Hit, after which he withdrew his candidacy. But instead of him, Margaret had new rivals. The most serious of which was Whitelow. The second round of elections was held on 11.02.1975, which reflected the obvious advantage of Thatcher: 146 elected members of the people voted for him, while Whitelow received 79 votes.
It was a very difficult time for the conservativesthey twice failed in the parliamentary elections, the number of party members fell sharply, the party crisis came. It was clear: the party needed "new blood". And Thatcher, like no one, coped with this difficult mission.
The Iron Lady of British Politics Margaret Thatcher
She first became prime minister in 1979.These were difficult elections: until their very end, no one was sure of the victory of the Conservatives, but the final figures showed that 339 seats out of 635 in the parliament were assigned to the conservatives. Margaret understood that now she could realize those ideas that she had been harboring in her head for many years. In the political life of Britain a new era has begun.
The period of Prime Minister Thatcher was very tense:an economic and social crisis broke out in the country. The share of the UK industry in the world economy fell by a quarter after the Second World War. Enterprises suffered losses, salaries fell significantly. And entrepreneurs were forced to lower the quality of the product produced in order to reduce costs. The economic crisis has already begun to grow into a political one, decomposing the country from within.
Hard hand and authoritarian regime Margaret Thatcher helped Great Britain and the whole English people to feel the taste of victory and revive the former power of the state.
Margaret was always straightforward and firm insolving issues of all levels. She fiercely fought against trade unions, "whiners" and parasites. Many were repelled by its rigidity, but still the majority followed it because of this very determination in solving problems. Therefore, she was twice re-elected to the post of prime minister.
None of the prime ministers of the twentieth century held such a position for such a long time. It became a symbol of the whole era of the revival of Great Britain, being at the helm of the country.
Reforms and achievements Thatcher
Margaret herself did not call herself a woman - she said: I'm a politician, but a politician does not have sex. She showed courage where he was not enough for men.
It was with her that the conflict was resolved onFalkland Islands with Argentina. Britain and specifically Thatcher showed her determination in this matter, having introduced troops there, after which the Argentine forces were forced to leave the islands. This small war, became the next political victory of the Iron Lady. By the way, the nickname was given to her by the Russians. In their own country, for their unyielding character, Margaret was called much less poetic, for example, "Taran" or "Armored Tank".
It is interesting, what exactly at Thatcher happenedthe rapprochement of Great Britain with the USSR, while Mikhail Gorbachev and his wife paid a government visit to London. Margaret called her Soviet colleague "Gorby" and in many matters they were in solidarity, although there were divergences.
Reforms initiated by the Iron Lady, boiled down to three main postulates:
- reduction of taxation for large businesses;
- privatization of public sector facilities;
- a significant reduction in the wage fund.
The latter, of course, was extremely unpopular with the bulk of people, but played a positive role in the dying economy of the country.
In those years, the problem of Ulster was of no small importance.Margaret Thatcher showed profound political wisdom, calm, but at the same time remarkable determination. She proposed to grant Ulster (Northern Ireland) independence from England, if the conducted referendum shows that the majority of the population will vote for this decision. However, this was not to come true: as a result, Ulster is under the aegis of the United Kingdom to this day. It should be noted that the IRA (Irish Republican Army) even organized an assassination attempt on the prime minister, having detonated the bomb, but Margaret was not injured, unlike other figures of the Conservative Party.
Care of the premiere
In 1990, M. Thatcher resigned.Together with her passed a whole era. The Iron Lady managed to return to the United Kingdom its former power and brilliance, returning it again to the number of leaders of the world economy and politics. This merit will remain forever in the memory of the English people, and Margaret Thatcher's name is forever imprinted in the political history of Britain. April 8, 2013 The Iron Lady was gone. Many people ask themselves: how old is Thatcher? Margaret lived a long, interesting life, reaching 87 years of age. A farewell procession was held in the presence of Queen Elizabeth II, members of her family, as well as political figures of a bygone era.