Nabucco gas pipeline: route, route
The Nabucco gas pipeline (Nabucco) is a highwaythe length of 3,3 thousand kilometers. With it, it is possible to deliver fuel from Azerbaijan and Central Asia to the EU countries. Nabucco is a gas pipeline that was supposed to supply Germany and Austria first. Its name comes from the same name by the famous composer Giuseppe Verdi. The main theme of his opera is the release, which should be facilitated by a new highway supplying fuel to Europe.
The beginning of the development of a new highway began inFebruary 2002 under the name "Nabucco". The pipeline was originally the subject of negotiations between two companies: the Austrian OMV and the Turkish BOTAS. Later they were joined by four more: Hungarian, German, Bulgarian and Romanian. Together they signed a protocol of their intentions. At the end of 2003, after calculating the necessary costs, the European Commission provided a grant of 50% of the total amount. After the initial development of the project, the partners signed a final agreement. In June 2008, the first delivery of fuel from Azerbaijan to Bulgaria via the Nabucco gas pipeline was carried out.
Strategic importance of the project
In the winter of 2009, the EU once again realizedits catastrophic energy dependence on the Russian Federation. As a result of the Russian-Ukrainian conflict, residents of parts of European countries found themselves without heat in their homes. In early 2010, a summit was held in Budapest, the main issue of which was the Nabucco gas pipeline. Its main task was to diversify fuel flows. In July, a special intergovernmental agreement was signed by five prime ministers.
Also stakeholders in the projectthe EU represented by President M. Barroso and Energy Commissioner A. Piebalgs, and the United States was represented by the envoy for Eurasian energy R. Morningsar and the Minister of Foreign Affairs Committee Sen. R. Lugar. Hungary ratified the agreement on October 20, 2009, Bulgaria - 3.02.2010, Turkey - 4.03.2010. The Nabucco gas pipeline received additional support with the publication of an additional intergovernmental agreement between all the states involved in it.
In May 2012, the Shah Deniz consortium introduced a newproposal - the Nabucco-West gas pipeline. Already a year has been signed agreement on its financing. According to it, the Shah Deniz consortium will pay 50% of the costs for the new project, and the transit country will pay the remaining half. In 2013, a memorandum was signed, but in summer it was announced that investments will be made in the Trans Adriatic gas pipeline. The executive director of the Austrian company OMV said that the project was suspended. Therefore, the Nabucco gas pipeline today has lost its strategic importance, but recently Bulgaria and Azerbaijan again asked the EU for its revival. What will come of it - time will tell.
Nabucco gas pipeline: scheme
The planned length of the route was 3893kilometer. It was to begin at Ahiboz (Turkey) and end at the Baumgarten deposit (Austria). It would also pass through three other countries: Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary. But in fact, not the gas pipeline "Nabucco" was supposed to begin in Akhiboza. The project route also included Georgia and Iraq. In Ahiboz he had to be connected precisely with their highways. The modified Nabucco-West gas pipeline was a more modest project and was to begin on the Turkish-Bulgarian border. Its estimated length was 1,329 kilometers. The shortened gas pipeline was to pass through the territory of four states: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Austria. Polish company PGNiG once studied the possibility of connecting the state to Nabucco.
It was assumed that the Nabucco-West gas pipeline was notwill be taxed for 25 years from the date of launch. Its throughput was supposed to be 10 billion cubic meters per year. Half of the transported gas would be delivered to countries not directly involved in the project. If there is demand, the capacity could be raised by an additional 13 billion cubic meters.
The Nabucco project is part of thedevelopment of the Trans-European Energy Network, and its development was carried out with money from the grant. When it was transformed, all the engineering work had to be continued. The construction was planned to begin in 2013. Nabucco was supposed to start functioning fully by 2017. But the Shah Deniz consortium has chosen another project for financing, so this one remains frozen for now.
The cost of the Nabucco project is neverwas divulged, but in 2012 R. Michek said that it is much less than 7.9 billion euros. The final calculation was expected by the end of 2013. Today, Bulgaria and Azerbaijan are carrying out special studies in order to prove the profitability of the construction of this gas pipeline.
Sources of filling the gas pipeline
The basis of the project is the already constructed main lineBaku - Tbilisi. Supplies from Central Asia, primarily from Turkmenistan, were also to be delivered there. There was a proposal to lay a gas pipeline through Armenia, but this caused an extremely negative reaction in Azerbaijan itself. Poland planned to make a branch from Nabucco to its territory through Slovakia.
Initially through the pipeline plannedto transport fuel from Iran, but there was a conflict. At the Budapest summit, this country was not represented. The only source of filling, which remained by 2013, was located in Azerbaijan - the Shah Deniz field. But now the reserves of the Caspian gas pipeline draw from it. Managing Director of Nabucco, R. Mitschek, considers it possible to join Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Egypt and even Russia.
Prospects and problems
From the very beginning of project development, the implementation of"Nabucco" was associated with a number of difficulties. Sources of supply are determined by a maximum of a quarter of the estimated capacity. This makes it unprofitable. The situation is complicated by the uncertain status of the Caspian Sea, near which the Russian troops are based. After a five-day war, the fitness of Georgia as a transit state also significantly decreased, and involvement in the project of Armenia will lead to a negative reaction of Azerbaijan. Many problems are associated with Turkey's participation.
To date, Nabucco remainsan unrealizable dream, and its geopolitical significance has fallen dramatically. Most major European states, and even more so Russia, are not interested in spending huge sums of money on it.