Speech redundancy. Tautology, Pleonasm
One of the problems of modern philology is verbalredundancy and its insufficiency. She points to a lean vocabulary, inability to clearly state their thoughts. Particularly destructive is the manifestation of speech redundancy in the works of novice writers and journalists. Its main manifestations include repetition of words, tautology and pleonasm.
The ability to find these speech errors in the texts,timely correct them is a pledge of literate, beautiful and easily readable text. True, not always tautology and pleonasm - gross speech errors. In some cases, they can be an excellent means of expressiveness and emotional design of the text.
The main types of speech errors
Speech redundancy, or verbosity,implies the transmission of the same thought in the sentence and utterance. The main types of such errors associated with lexical insufficiency are first of all tautology, pleonasm and repetition of words in sentences. These speech errors indicate a low level of speech culture. But at the same time they are used in fiction as a means of emotional expressiveness.
Speech errors include the use ofsuperfluous words in the sentence, the splitting of the concept, that is, the situation in which the verb predicate is replaced by a verbal-nominal combination. Strong examples are the following expressions: take a walk (instead of walking), fight (instead of fighting). Also, the most common errors encountered in oral speech are parasitic words: here, well, type, etc.
Repeating words as one of the speech errors
Quite often in the texts you can find repetitionwords. For example: "The newspaper came out once a week. In the morning the newspaper was delivered to the kiosk. " So it is unacceptable to write. The word "newspaper" is used in both the first and second sentence, which is a rather crude speech error. In this case, the correct solution would be to replace it with a synonym or pronoun.
Repeating words indicates that the author can notclearly and succinctly formulate his idea, he has a meager vocabulary. True, it is worth noting that in some cases such speech redundancy can be justified. It is capable of becoming an excellent stylistic device, with the help of which the author emphasizes this or that thought. For example: "They walked, and walked, and walked, not one day, not one night." In this case, the repetition of the verb indicates the duration of the process.
The term "pleonasmos" is translated fromGreek language as "excessiveness", "excess". And means the use in speech of relatives in meaning, superfluous in the sentence words. Bright examples of pleonasms can be found in such proposals:
- "A blond blonde came to me."
- "In the room they found a dead corpse."
- "He worked silently, without words."
- "Oil is very oily."
- "He wrote his autobiography."
- "He was interested in a vacancy in the company."
- "Basil fell down."
- "We trample on our native land."
All these proposals are overloaded with superfluousrefinements or pleonasms. So, the blonde in any case is light, the autobiography is derived from two Greek words and means a self-written story of her own life, etc.
Like any other speech redundancy, pleonasmis a sign of inadequate education of a person, a very scarce vocabulary. You should carefully analyze your vocabulary. And also in time to find and correct mistakes related to the use in the speech of pleonasms.
The term tautology consists of two Greek words. The first - tauto - means "the same", the second - logos - "word". It is treated as a repetition of one-root words or morphemes in a sentence. Most philologists note that tautology is one of the varieties of pleonasm.
It also manifests speech redundancy. Examples of this phenomenon are pronounced in the following phrases: tell the story, buses are in the bus park, etc. There is also a hidden tautology when a Russian and a foreign word is combined in a phrase with a close, identical meaning. For example: first debuted, interior interior, folk folklore, its own autobiography.
Use in stylistics
It should be noted that speech redundancy, exampleswhich can be found in fiction, is by no means always a verbal error. So, in the style of using pleonasms and tautology helps to strengthen the effectiveness and emotionality of speech, to emphasize the aphoristic expression. Writers-humorists use these errors to create puns.
We note the main functions played by speech redundancy and tautology in stylistics:
- Use in the speech of the main characters in order to emphasize the poverty of his vocabulary, ignorance.
- To strengthen the semantic significance of a particular moment, the allocation of a certain thought in the text.
- Use tautological repeats to emphasize the intensity or duration of the action. For example: "We wrote and wrote".
- Use of pleonasms in order to emphasize or clarify the feature of the object, its characteristics.
- Proposals with speech redundancy can also be used to denote a large accumulation of objects. For example: "And everywhere there are books, books, books ...".
- Use to create puns. For example: "Let me not allow."
Note that most often tautology and pleonasmare found in folklore. For example: lived-were, the path-path, apparently not visible, wonderfully wonderful, a wonderful miracle, grief to grieve. At the heart of most phraseological defenses, sayings are the tautology: small is small less, you can not hear, you can see kinds, walk with staggering, all sorts of things, bitter grief, sit sideways.
Normative cases of use
It is worth noting that in some cases pleonasmand tautology can be normative. Often this happens when the phrase does not feel the sense of congestion. So, speech redundancy is absent in such expressions: white linen, black ink. It is explained simply. After all, the laundry can be gray and yellow. And ink can be both black, and blue, green, red.
One of the main mistakes that can be made oftenmeet in verbal and written speech - speech redundancy. Tautology and pleonasm are its main manifestations, which point to the scarcity of the language, poor vocabulary. At the same time, these lexical phenomena can be used in fiction to create vivid, colorful pictures, highlighting a particular thought.
For any educated person, in particularif he works in the field of journalism or is fond of writing books, it is important to be able to find in the text pleonasm and tautology, correct them in time so that the texts are read easily. Speech redundancy and lack of vocabulary make the material presented uninteresting for a wide audience.