Objective reality


Man perceives the world subjectively, with the help oftheir own feelings, which sometimes are deceptive. It seems to us that the Earth's surface is flat, it itself is stationary, and the Sun revolves around the Earth. But the knowledge gained at school still tells us the opposite. The Sun does not "rise and set", but the Earth rotates around its own axis, which creates the illusion of sunrise and sunset. The observed sunrise and sunset is a subjectively perceived objective reality.

Philosophers (materialists and objective idealists, unlike subjective idealists) explain to us that the world exists independently of the consciousness of the subject perceiving it.

Objective reality for the materialist issomething, a certain mechanism that works by itself in accordance with the laws of nature. Representatives of agnosticism believe that it is unknowable in principle. Materialists believe that the world is cognizable, but this process is endless in its approach to truth. And only subjective idealists (solipsists) prove to us that objective reality does not exist at all, but only a complex of our sensations, perceptions, perceptions of the world. And this is the true reality, in their opinion.

Reality and reality are concepts that are ruled, but differ in meaning.

Reality (in translation from Latin - "real", "material") is that which exists independently of the subject, it can be possible and real.

The category of reality expresses the aspect of continuous movement, constant change. Reality is the being of being in action. It is in this way that objective reality reveals itself.

Aristotle's concept of energeia ("energy") andentelechia ("completeness", "realization") are quite close, that is, if you slightly simplify its complex constructions, you can see that it brings together the essence and movement. World perception through energy, movement, we can find in German classical philosophy, in Protestant ethics, in Hegelian dialectics, and also in phenomenology. The German philosopher M. Eckhart introduces the concept of wirklichkeit ("reality") as a translation from the Latin language - effective. Note that in German, as in Russian, the category of the real contains an element of action, in Latin and Greek it converges with truth, and in English and French - with reality. If we consider social reality, then the component of the action there turns out to be very important and significant, as it is constructed and built by people.

Physical reality is a concept thatcharacterizes the primary empirical basis of natural scientific theories. This fundamental principle can be recorded and modeled in various ways, presented at different levels of the cognition process. The very term "physical reality" was introduced by Albert Einstein. This category, on the one hand, is connected with the content of the concept of "objective reality", by which scientists understand the physical world, and on the other hand with the categories of the subject and object of cognition.

Consequently, physical reality can bedetermine at the level of observation and experiment. For example, as a manifestation of the phenomena of the microworld in macroobjects, which can be registered by the experimenter's sensory organs and special devices. After that, this same physical reality is considered at different levels of its manifestation - empirical and theoretical. Physical reality at the empirical level can be represented by some generalizations, the systematization of data, and on the theoretical - by logical reconstructions of the results in the form of physical theories and models of the reality under investigation.

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