Types of unemployment and examples. Main types of unemployment
The consequence of economic downturns in productionis not only inflation. The decline in the level of development of all economic spheres of society can not but affect the state of the labor market. Inflation and unemployment reach their highest level during periods of crises, but there can be no equality between these phenomena. It is necessary to clearly see the differences that inflation and unemployment have.
The first of these phenomena reduces the standard of livingcitizens. Unemployment, however, physically reshapes existing labor resources. The society, which has spent considerable money on the training of qualified personnel, is faced with their unnecessaryness. Millions of workers are simply superfluous for production.
It is possible that time will pass and the situation will change. Experts will once again need companies and organizations. However, their skill and skill will already be somewhat lost, in addition, moral fragility after the experienced unstable situation will affect. To restore labor, society will need to provide its citizens with social and economic support, the level of which will directly depend on the type and duration of unemployment. That is why deep knowledge about this phenomenon is so important.
Unemployment is asocio-economic phenomenon, when some of the active population does not have the opportunity to fully realize their mental and physical abilities in the production of services and goods. Non-employment of citizens also occurs when the demand for labor exceeds their supply.
The effectiveness of the use of labor has changedas the development of human society. Thus, under the primitive system all the able-bodied population of the tribe was involved in hunting, cooking and other vital processes. Full employment of people is also characteristic of the slave system. During this period, huge slave armies worked on plantations, and free citizens became colonists, warriors or engaged in various crafts. A similar picture was observed under feudalism.
Everything changed after the emergence of a privatecapitalism. The dominance of market relations at the industrial stage of the development of society was the cause of a new economic phenomenon called unemployment. At that time, crowds of non-laborers appeared.
Who is considered unemployed?
Socio-economic phenomenon, when the populationnot involved in the production processes, is closely related to the labor market. By definition, given the ILO, the unemployed is the person who currently does not have a job, but he is looking for him and is ready to participate in the production process. However, not every citizen can be referred to this category.
Thus, disabled people do not fit this criterion,elderly people and children. In addition, a citizen who has a certain income, but he does not want to participate in production processes, is also not considered unemployed.
The essence of the phenomenon
The concept and types of unemployment are terms that invariably accompany the market system of management. This is confirmed by the whole history of the development of capitalist society.
Thus, since the second half of the 18th century,mass action of the working class. People protested against the use of cars, because the industrial revolution gave birth to an entire army of unnecessary workers. Then the phenomenon continued to gain momentum. This led to the fact that in 1995 on our planet was recorded a record number of unemployed. It amounted to 635 million people.
Essence and types of unemployment, as well as the number of unemployed people depend on the specific period in the development of the economy, which is characterized by certain indicators, such as:
- Labor efficiency;
- economic growth rates;
- degree of conformity of qualification of the personnel to the demand existing on them;
- demographic situation;
- The employment policy pursued by the state.
According to statistical research, the numberpeople who do not have the opportunity to find a job, especially increases in those periods when the country is growing economic crisis. An example of this is the decline in production, which was observed in 1857. During this period, in England, in the field of the metalworking industry, unemployment was 12%. And in the prosperous year 1853 - only 2%. A sharp increase in unemployment in 1957 was observed in the United States. For example, in New York more than 150 thousand people were "superfluous".
This is a negative socio-economic phenomenonis a serious problem in modern society. Thus, the growth in the number of unemployed people was observed in the crises of 1973-1975, 1979-1980, and also in 1982-1983.
Types and level of unemployment depend onof the country in question. For example, if you take the data from 1985, then in Spain 20% of the population could not find work, and in Japan - 2.6%. In the 90 years in the countries of Europe (France, England, Germany and Italy), the unemployed were 10-12%, in America - from 5 to 6, in Japan - from 2.3 to 3, and in Switzerland - only 1%. Such differences arise because of the different state policies of countries in the field of macroeconomic regulation. Part of the discrepancy in the unemployment rate is due to the different definitions of the term.
Because of what there is a problem of "superfluous" staff?
Unemployment, causes, types, consequences of the givenThe negative phenomenon is widely studied by economists. To date, researchers have ambiguously explained the appearance of "extra" staff. Among the available reasons are:
1. Malthusianism, or an excess of population.
2. Marxism, that is, the growth of the organic structure of capital.
3. High level of remuneration.
4. Keynesianism, concluded in the lack of aggregate demand.
According to economists who adhere to thistheory, the number of workers employed in the production process is directly opposite to the level of remuneration they receive for labor. In other words, employment declines along with wage growth. How then can the problem of unemployment be eliminated? Reduce the amount of wages.
Economists who adhere to this theory,consistently and thoroughly argue that in a market economy, unemployment is not voluntary, but forced. In their view, the neoclassical concept can only be confirmed within the sectoral, that is, the microeconomic level.
The founder of the theory, Keynes, argued that the volumeemployment is directly related to the efficiency of demand for goods. In addition, the employment of the population is largely dependent on investment. The growth of such investments invariably acts on the branches that produce consumer goods, which leads to an increase in the demand for labor resources.
Types of unemployment
Currently, a negative socio-economic phenomenon characteristic of all countries is subject to a certain classification. The main types of unemployment:
Consider the types of this phenomenon in more detail.
It occurs when a person is firedhis own will, when a specialist intends to find a new, more suitable job for him. As a rule, such a phenomenon is characterized by a short period of time. The specialist is quickly employed and no longer belongs to the army unnecessary for the production of people.
This kind of unemployment occurs when changingplace of residence, getting a new education, being on parental leave. Reducing the level of this phenomenon can talk about improving the supply of necessary information to those who are looking for work. However, economists argue that frictional unemployment is inevitable. In addition, it is to some extent even desirable, because this phenomenon means specialists receiving higher incomes, which will allow the state to rationally allocate labor resources and achieve an increase in the volume of the national product.
This phenomenon occurs due to the searchvacancies by those specialists who have narrow qualifications. At its core, structural unemployment, examples of which are found in our country, is involuntary. It arises as a result of transformations in one or another sphere of the national economy, as well as in the development of new, high-tech areas and the reduction of obsolete industries.
What are the specifics of the Russian structuralunemployment? Examples of this phenomenon concern those who, having a secondary specialized or higher education, cannot find a suitable job for themselves. And this happens while increasing the demand for unskilled labor resources.
Inevitability of phenomena of frictional and structural types
The types of unemployment considered and their examplesappearances give every reason to consider their presence in society as natural. Such phenomena are considered normal for a dynamically developing state. In other words, such types and forms of unemployment, as structural and frictional, are classified as natural and non-removable. At the same time, they influence the creation of a long-term sustainable balance in the labor market. Indicates these types of unemployment table below.
Such a negative phenomenon arises as a result ofdecline in production in the period of economic development, which is characterized by insufficient investment injections in the production sector. Cyclical unemployment reaches its peak level during periods of crisis. The minimum value of this phenomenon is observed during the rise of production. Of course, there are various types and forms of unemployment, but cyclical is the most painful for the population. It leads to a drop in the income of the individual, and, consequently, to a decrease in his welfare. In addition, the presence of cyclical unemployment in society indicates the use of production capacity is not in full. And this implies a reduction in tax revenues to the treasury.
The need to account for the unemployed
Unemployment types and examples of their manifestation maybe very different. Thus, certain forms of this phenomenon are classified based on the need to register the unemployed, which will allow the state to take appropriate measures.
At the same time allocate:
1. Registered unemploymenty, reflecting the number of unemployed people who are looking for vacancies and registered in the state-run employment services
2. Hidden unemployment. The category of such workforce includescitizens who are employed in production, but there are "superfluous". They are sent on social leave or offered to go on part-time work.
Duration of the job search period
The types of unemployment and examples of its manifestation vary in the time of the existence of this phenomenon. So, a similar negative phenomenon happens:
- short-term, when a person can not find work for 8 months;
- long (from 8 to 18 months);
- stagnant (over 18 months).