Organic habitat: the rules of life
Organizmennaya habitat, the characteristics of which will be discussed in this article, is significantly different from all others. What is so special about it? Let's understand together.
Organic Habitat: Characteristics
Creatures that inhabit the livingorganisms, do not depend on the presence of light and gas composition of the atmosphere. Environmental factors that act on them, differ marked consistency. Such indicators include, for example, temperature, pressure, humidity, chemical composition. Organic habitat also involves a rather limited space.
There is an opinion that creatures that live inside oron others, they cause them considerable harm, exhaust, cause serious illnesses and even the death of the owners. Sometimes this is really not without reason. For example, a flat worm pork tapeworm, parasitizing inside the human body, leads to disruption of the nervous system and loss of consciousness. But the amoebae, which live inside the outgrowth of the stomach of the clam of the woodworm, digest the cellulose and provide the process of feeding the host.
Positive characteristics of the organismenvironment is the constant availability of food, its accessibility and easily assimilated form. A negative feature is a closed space with a limited area. This significantly increases the level of competition. That is why large parasitic worms are most often found in the host organism in a single quantity. The lack of oxygen is also of great complexity. This leads to the transition of many species to anaerobic metabolism.
What is symbiosis
Organic habitat involvesdifferent forms of coexistence of different species. All of them are called one word - symbiosis. It can be represented by several species. So, with the obligatory symbiosis, organisms can not exist without each other. For example, mushrooms that are part of a lichen thallus can not live without cyanobacterial cells. Optional symbiosis is a temporary concept. Such organisms can live together or separately. Many species of marine shrimp that clean fish scales from parasites coexist together only a certain time. After which they leave painlessly and live separately. In any case, food relations are at the heart of all symbiotic relationships.
For plants, animals, fungi and bacteria,which feed and live at the expense of others, the main is precisely the organism's habitat. Examples of such relationships are found in nature quite often. Some of them parasitize on the host's body. These are lice, ticks, mosquitoes, leeches. Others also use organisms as a home. This group includes flukes, ribbon and flatworms. For life in such an environment, they have a number of adaptations. Thus, the chain has special attachment organs, through which they are fixed in the intestinal ducts of the host. These parasites do not have their own digestive system. By the type of the reproductive system, they are hermaphrodites, which allows them to lead an attached lifestyle.
Features of commensalism
Organic habitat is suitable andcommensals. True, these organisms use only the remains of food, the products of their vital activity or habitation, without causing any appreciable harm to them. It can manifest itself in the form of lodging or sponging. An example of the first variant is the most courageous bird plover, which extracts the remains of food from the teeth of crocodiles. Lodging is advantageous in its activity freshwater fish gorchak, laying its eggs in the mantle cavity of mollusks.
The organismal habitat of mutualistsprovides benefits to themselves and the owner. Flagellar protozoa in the stomach of termites are reliably protected from the negative influence of the environment and are provided with ready-made nutrients. At the same time, they produce enzymes that break down complex carbohydrates. Mutualistic are the relations of the sea anemones with clown fish. In this case, the plant is a reliable shelter and protection. In exchange for fish, the predator is freed from the remnants of food. Nodule bacteria, located on the roots of legumes, receive from them organic substances. They themselves fix atmospheric nitrogen and transfer it to a state accessible to plants.
So, the features of the organism's habitatconsist in the consistency of environmental conditions and partial independence from them. In particular, this applies to species that live inside others. Depending on the nature of the food connections in the organismal environment, living things can act as parasites, commensals or mutualists.