Methods of economic research
All science consists of certain methods of investigation. Not an exception and the economy. All methods of economic research can be divided into the following groups:
· Universal (metaphysical and dialectical).
· General scientific (logical, historical, mathematical, statistical).
· Specific (selected for each branch of science).
Of all this, two main methods of economic research should be distinguished: metaphysics and dialectics.
Metaphysics is a method thatconsiders any phenomenon separately, in the so-called state of rest and immutability. First of all, it is necessary in the event that it is necessary to analyze some part of the system or, for example, to find out what the essence of the internal structure of economic relations is. A similar method will be used in the classification of the functions of money, forms of organization of the economy, types of property, forms of wages.
To more fully reflect the reality,economic theory uses a method such as dialectics. It means the teaching about the general laws of the development of all phenomena of nature, as well as thinking and society. The German philosopher Georg Hegel, the creator of the systematic theory of dialectics, placed the most important place in theory in a contradiction, by which he understood the unity of mutually supposing and mutually exclusive opposites. The dialectical method of contradiction reflects in their inseparable unity. Thanks to this, in practice, it is possible to avoid erroneous decisions, and also to unite into a whole incompatible phenomena at first glance. Due to the contradiction in economic activity, forms arise that can help to come to a compromise (for example, an agreement between the parties that is achieved through bilateral concessions.
An important role is played also by general scientific methodseconomic research. First and foremost, this concerns the historical method, with the help of which it is possible to find out how economic systems evolved and how they develop. This method allows you to specifically study and visualize the features of any system, and depending on the stage of its historical development. Considering general scientific methods of economic research, it is necessary to distinguish a logical method by means of which the forms and laws of correct thinking are used, due to which it is possible to achieve the truth of the stated conclusions and judgments. Thanks to the logical method, one can better understand the cause-effect economic dependencies.
In order to study the qualitative features,Such methods of economic research as economic-mathematical modeling and statistical method are used. Recently, mathematical modeling is quite widespread, which is a description of reality in a simplified form, as well as an abstract generalization using graphs and equations that describe the interrelationships of economic variables. If we talk about economic statistics, then with its help it is possible to obtain a more accurate measurement and description of quantitative processes that are typical for mass phenomena of economic activity over a long period of time - 10-20 years or more.
Methods for the study of economic phenomena inaggregates with other scientific methods solve such an important task as the identification of common elements and features common to all the systems under study, the patterns of development, and also the differences between the systems themselves. Economic methods play an important role today in the development of the modern economy and the state as a whole.