Romansh language: how fast to learn?
The Romansh language (more precisely, languages) is spoken byour planet is few. Some may even think that, like Latin, the Romansh language is dead, but it is not. It is quite possible to learn this archaic language, but first you need to understand the term, because this is not one language, but a whole group.
The Romansh language is a group of Romance languages. The place of their distribution is the Gallo-Italian language area, so they are not a genetic group.
The Friulian language derives its name from the region of Friuli in Italy, where it was distributed. This area stretches north from Venice to the border with Austria, and to the east to the border with Slovenia.
Ladino language also exists in the north of Italy, east of the Dolomites, in the Alto-Adige region.
Romanshsky is the Swiss Romansh language, the distribution area of which is the Rhine Valley and the canton of Graubünden.
The Engadin dialect is also included in this group. It still exists in the Inn Valley in Switzerland.
The fate of these languages is interesting. The most common at the moment is the Friulian, it is spoken by about three hundred thousand people. At the moment, all four languages are legally recognized as national languages, however Romansh acquired an official status quite recently (it owns several tens of thousands of people on the whole planet). That is, even this Romansh language is alive, but in the schools of Switzerland it is taught only in areas where direct carriers live. By the way, the inhabitants of the canton Graubünden do not intend to bury their language: some newspapers and magazines are published on it, signs and signs are made. Even the radio in the canton is broadcasting in Romansh.
An interesting feature: Romansh (like the Friulian) has several dialects. Verkhneengadinskiy and Surselvsky are the most important. With a periodicity of one year, they succeed each other as the national language of the canton.
Its roots are archaic and Romansh. What language could form the basis of it? Of course Latin. The ancient Romans captured the Alpine lands, bringing with their weapons and their language. The constant migrations of the tribes, and the centuries past, contributed to their contribution, but the inhabitants of the canton of Graubünden joke that if one of the Roman legionaries suddenly returned from the dead and asked for a pack of cigarettes in a nearby kiosk, he would have been understood.
In the 8th-9th centuries the Swiss Romanshman languageis experiencing strong German pressure, since the latter receives the status of an administrative language. Although the Romansh language even issued documents and translations of religious texts, most of which were translations from Latin. The archaic "peasant" language stood firm for almost ten centuries, and even in the middle of the 19th century almost half of the inhabitants of the canton of Graubünden called this Romansh language native.
There is an opinion that it was in this century that he wasThe biggest blow has been struck: unemployment has reached its limit, and the development of roads has led to the fact that more and more native speakers were leaving the canton. To find a good job in a new place, they needed to own German.
After a while local writers andcultural society sounded the alarm: the language was in danger of extinction. As a result of his advancement not only in the canton itself, but also in other areas, the Romansh language in Switzerland was elevated to the national language status of the country, but it happened not so long ago - in 1938.
The most common Romansh language -Friuli. Although modern linguists dispute his attitude to the Romance language group and are inclined to regard it as a separate language. There is still no consensus on this issue.
Friulsky in some respects close to languagesNorthern Italy, but not enough to consider them related. He still belongs to the group of "Romanshmen", although scientists call this classification somewhat outdated.
In the Friulian diphthong is preserved, just asa characteristic feature is the stunning at the end of the word voiced consonants. There are also specific features in grammar: two types of plural education and the use of special flexion when writing a sentence with a question.
Unity of languages
Although the languages of the Romansh group have commonfeatures, conditionally united them into one group not so long ago. This was done by the linguist from Italy G. Ascoli in 1873. He examined in detail the question of the linguistic unity of the so-called "Ladin dialects", that is, the Romance, Ladino and Friuli languages, but he also noted the isolation of the latter. The term "Romansh language" was introduced by the German novelist T. Gartner ten years after the publication of the work of Ascoli.
Besides modern names in the works of linguistsused and such as "Alpine Romance", "Retaladinsky", "Reto-Friuli", and the whole group in some works (for example, H. Schneller), called Freyul-Ladino-Kurvalian language union.
Neither Askoli nor Gartner "officially" includedFriulian in the group of Romansh languages, however, for some reason, many researchers of the Romance languages began to consider it as part of the Ladino range.
How to Learn Romansh
It's a little common language, so findthe teacher in the language centers can be difficult (or expensive), but do not despair - everything you need can be found on the Internet. The first thing you need is a grammar book. The mastering of any language is easiest to begin with an understanding of its structure. The problem here is that textbooks and dictionaries, in general, also in foreign languages: German, French, Italian. It is much easier to deal with this language will be the one who owns Latin.
Native speakers are few, but they are. Therefore, you can study the language in the region of its distribution. If this is not possible - it's worth trying to find a carrier in video chat for those who are looking for an interlocutor for a conversation in a foreign language. In addition, there is also fiction in the Romansh; mostly translations of classical ancient literature, for example, the fables of Aesop. Reading not only helps to learn the language quickly, but also makes the process interesting.