Methods of cultural studies
Science culturology, relatively new, moreand emerging at the junction, such sciences as philosophy, psychology, history, linguistics, sociology and the like of the humanities. By concentrating the data of these sciences in the study of culture, its structure and dynamics of development, culturology also uses their methods in their studies.
It is important to note that there is no single scientific approachin the study of an object. Each method has its merits, but also drawbacks, so for each study you need to carefully choose the method of solving the problem. Cultural science as a related science that has various interdisciplinary connections uses various methods of cultural studies, as well as methods of related sciences.
The object of cultural studies is culture, and the world of culture is like a holistic structure.
Methods of cultural studies
The very first method must be attributedan evolutionary method that was effectively used at the initial stage of the development of cultural studies first by the English school of E. Tylor, and then in the first half of the 20th century by L. Levy-Bruhl to analyze the connection between culture and the features of human thinking. This method, along with the dialectical, studies culture as a dynamic structure with a chain of successive changes, and also takes into account changes that occur dramatically, and even jumpwise, such as a cultural revolution, is part of the historical method.
The methods of cultural studies includealso a structural method. It is focused on the study of the structure of the cultural system and the interrelations between the elements of the system, for example, between religion and science.
Also in the methods of cultural studiesincludes a functional method that explores the functions of culture, such as a cultural phenomenon such as religion and its impact on society. This method, from the point of view of functions, attaches great importance to the study of people's interests and requests, ways of meeting their needs, since each cultural element has its own special function. The functional method, revealing the general laws of the functioning of all cultures, gives any cultural element an explanation.
The system method is also included in the methodscultural studies. He studies any culture as a whole, in which everything is connected, without having separate elements. Having studied these properties, this method allows us to give a general definition of a culture, for example, a military one.
The typological method is used in culturologyfor studying and revealing the type of culture, revealing the most characteristic and important features of this culture. This method allows us to identify such types of cultures as western and eastern.
The comparative method is also actively used inculturology, as it allows, comparing cultural phenomena and different cultures, to reveal common morphological features, structure and peculiarities of cultures.
The comparative method of culturologicalresearch allows us to conduct a comparative-historical analysis of different cultures or some area of culture for a certain period of time. Comparing usually some sort of common for these cultures area to reveal their difference.
In addition to these methods, culturologyuses methods used in various areas of society, for example, analysis and synthesis, abstraction, classification (ordering on the basis of a single sign of culture or cultural phenomenon), induction and deduction, and many others.
Using all possible methods, culturology makes it possible to study the world of culture and understand it.