Speech errors: examples and types
All people, at least once in their life, let the speecherrors. Examples are thousands, especially if it concerns the Russian language, which is known to be rich and diverse. But it is necessary to speak competently, therefore it is better to be engaged in development of the speech. For your own development, it is worthwhile to find out what kinds of speech errors exist and what you need to do to avoid using them.
Speech and its specificity
Speech is an abstract category thatdirectly perceive does not work. It is also an important indicator of human culture, thinking and, of course, intelligence. Talking, you can learn many things, understand the complexities associated with society, nature, and communicate the information received in a communicative way. But mistakes do everything - both in oral and in written speech. And to achieve excellence in terms of knowledge of the Russian language, it is necessary to recognize all the mistakes - starting with stylistic ones, ending with speech ones. And first I would like to touch on the topic of concepts. What are speech errors in Russian? This is a deviation from existing language norms. You can safely live without knowing about them, but how effective this person's communication with others will be is a matter. It simply can be misunderstood.
It is worth briefly listing the types of speech errors,which exist in the Russian language. So, these are pronouncing, lexical, phraseological, stylistic, orthographic, morphological, punctuation and, finally, syntactic. The first of these are those mistakes that are made due to a violation of orthoepia. The most common speech errors in the Russian language. If a person says "almost" the word "posthi", confuses stresses ("alcohol" - "alcohol"), reduces "thousand" to "thousands" - this means that he allows such blots, which for the native speaker are shameful.
Speaking about the types of speech errors, you can notto touch upon lexical attentions. They also occur quite often. These include those blots that occur due to the use of phrases or words in the sense that is unusual for them. Thus, the morphemic form of words is distorted, as well as the rules of semantic agreement. By the way, in lexicology there is also a classification of speech errors. There are three types. The first is a mixture of words that are close in meaning. Some manage to put it this way: "I'll walk on foot". The second kind is a mixture of words that are close in sound. It occurs quite often: single - ordinary, clarinet - cornet, escalator - excavator, etc. And finally, the third kind of mistakes are the confusions of words, which are close in both sound and meaning. They often confuse the addressee with the addressee, and the diplomat with the diplomat. It is impossible not to say about the "author's" mistakes. To be more precise, it is about writing non-existent words. For example, the "Georgian", "warner", "heroism", etc.
The violation of the meaning of the proposal by introducing intohis wrong words are also frequent speech errors. Examples can be taken from everyday life: "I raise this toast." So you can not say, because "raise" means to move something. And toast are solemn words. They can not be lifted in any way. Therefore, in this case it is better to replace "toast" with the word "glass" or instead of "raise" to say "I say". In both cases it will be both correctly and logically. By the way, on the same example you can understand how to define a speech error and what needs to be done to avoid it at all. Before you pronounce a phrase, in the correctness of which there are doubts, you should remember the meaning of the words involved in its construction. As in the case with the example given. Also often found in speech tautologies and so-called pleonasms. The latter include combinations of two words that are completely identical. The most striking example is the phrase "a huge metropolis". It is better to say "big city". After all, "megapolis" is translated, so you do not need to add the definition of "huge" here. Analyzing, thus, everything you want to say, you can avoid a lot of mistakes. In addition, such training develops speech and thinking. And finally, tautology. Everything is simple: "I saw the video," "I shot arrows," "I set the task," "I did the work," and so on. Here, synonyms are saved - you can replace one word with another - and the phrase will already look more logical.
Morphological and syntactic illiteracy
Proposals with speech errors related tomorphological, you can hear every day - in the market, in the metro, on the street, in the store. It is about the wrong education of a word. People who know Russian well, such "pearls" cut their ears. Let's say "play the piano", "it was cheaper", "one jeans", "that towel", etc. In this case, you just need to memorize words so that you do not use them in the wrong form. Syntax errors consist in the wrong combination of words. "Reading Yesenin made a huge impression" - there is a logical question, read his works, or read it himself Sergei Alexandrovich? Or, for example, such a sentence: "There are a lot of cans on the shelf" - there is a clear wrong agreement. And there are a lot of such examples. Some people say so casually, in a hurry, others - because of ignorance. In any case, it is worth correcting yourself, so that the interlocutor does not find his opponent illiterate.
Grammar and speech errors people do notonly in the process of living communication. Many admit blots during correspondence, writing reports, writing texts. These include spelling errors. Their man admits because he does not know how to transfer, write or shorten words. They forget to put two "nn" instead of one, instead of "o" they write "a", neglect soft signs in the endings of the verbs to "sh". Errors can be minor (for example, a person missed a letter, missed a key), and there are frank absurdities. There was even a case when the student admitted four mistakes in the word "hedgehog" by writing "Iosh." However, this is a child who is just learning, and when adults, accomplished individuals make absurd blots, this is at least strange. Therefore, you need to monitor your speech, so that, as they say, do not get trapped.
Logic in speech
Our speech should be logical - it is knownall. Therefore, we must try not to violate the cause-effect relations, not to miss the link in our explanations, not to rearrange the parts of the proposal and, of course, not to "run" ahead of one's thoughts. To understand clearly, it is necessary to present information such that it can be learned by the interlocutors. It's not so difficult, you just need to concentrate on your thoughts.
Many speech errors were considered, exampleswhich are clearly shown, in what exactly is this or that defect. But in fact, the kinds of such "blots" are much larger, the extended classification of speech errors, respectively, is more voluminous. Take, for example, the mistakes involved in the unjustified use of certain words. "Thanks to you, he fell ill" - offers like this one are very often met. The use of the word "thanks" here is impossible, because it carries a completely different emotional coloring. And sometimes people make mistakes that even sound ridiculous. For example, Gogol's "Nose" is filled with deep meaning "or" Two horses drove into the courtyard. These were the sons of Taras Bulba "- very poorly used pronouns. Incidentally, the poverty of a person's vocabulary can also be attributed to verbal errors. Usually this is due to his small vocabulary. He often uses the same words, repeats a lot. This, too, must be avoided.
The development of speech
Having considered speech errors, examples of such andfiguring out the nature of their occurrence, you can understand that it is not so easy to talk intelligently. But almost every person wants to express themselves in such a way that they understand him. To do this, you must constantly work on yourself and your speech, developing it. How to prevent speech errors? For this you need to read fiction, attend exhibitions, museums and theaters, talk with intelligent and educated personalities. All this is necessary to expand your vocabulary and gain experience in terms of the use of certain words. By the way, there is a parallel between this development of speech and the study of a foreign language. After all, everyone knows that a person, getting into the language environment, learns it better. In this case, the same thing - by dealing more with literate people and devoting time to cultural events, one can become more educated.