Internal environment of the body and its meaning


The phrase "the internal environment of the body"appeared due to the French physiologist Claude Bernard, who lived in the XIX century. In his works he emphasized that the necessary condition for the life of the organism is the maintenance of constancy in the internal environment. This provision was the basis for the theory of homeostasis, which was formulated later (in 1929) by scientist Walter Cannon.

Homeostasis is the relative dynamic constancy of the internal environment,

Internal environment of the body
as well as some static physiologicalfunctions. The internal environment of the body is formed by two liquids - intracellular and extracellular. The fact is that every cell of a living organism performs a certain function, therefore it needs constant supply of nutrients and oxygen. Also, she feels the need for a constant removal of exchange products. The necessary components can penetrate the membrane exclusively in the dissolved state, which is why each cell is washed with a tissue fluid that has everything necessary for its vital activity. It refers to the so-called extracellular fluid, and it accounts for 20 percent of body weight.

The internal environment of the body, consisting of extracellular fluid, contains:

  • lymph (a component of the tissue fluid) - 2 liters;
  • blood - 3 liters;
  • interstitial fluid - 10 liters;
  • transcellular fluid - about 1 liter (it includes spinal, pleural, synovial, intraocular fluid).

All of them have different composition and differ in their functional

Internal environment of the human body
properties. Moreover, the internal environment of the human body can have a small difference between the consumption of substances and their intake. Because of this, their concentration is constantly fluctuating. For example, the amount of sugar in the blood of an adult can range from 0.8 to 1.2 g / l. In the event that the blood contains more or less specific components than necessary, this indicates the presence of the disease.

As already noted, the internal environment of the body inas one of the components contains blood. It consists of plasma, water, proteins, fats, glucose, urea and mineral salts. Its main location is the blood vessels (capillaries, veins, arteries). Blood is formed due to absorption of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, water. Its main function is the interrelation of organs with the external environment, the delivery to the organs of the necessary substances, the removal of the decay products from the body. It also performs protective and humoral functions.

The internal environment of the body is formed
Tissue fluid consists of water and nutrients dissolved in it, CO2, ABOUT2, as well as from products of dissimilation. It is in the spaces between the cells of tissues and is formed by the blood plasma. Tissue fluid is intermediate between blood and cells. It carries from the blood to the cells O2, mineral salts, nutrients.

The lymph consists of water and dissolved in itorganic substances. It is in the lymphatic system, which consists of lymphatic capillaries, vessels drained into two ducts and flowing into the hollow veins. Formed by tissue fluid, in pouches, which are located at the ends of lymphatic capillaries. The main function of lymph is the return of tissue fluid to the bloodstream. In addition, it filters and disinfects the tissue fluid.

As we see, the internal environment of the body is a combination of physiological, physico-chemical, respectively, and genetic conditions that affect the viability of a living being.

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