Text styles in modern languages
I would like to break my article into several,as it seems to me, the necessary parts. Before moving on to such an important and rather extensive topic as "text styles", I invite my readers to understand the very concepts of "style" and "text". Then we together will try to figure out what principles should be followed so as not to be mistaken with the definition of the desired style. And, finally, I will elaborate on the characteristics of each.
So, the word "style" has Latin roots andonce designated a simple thin stick, pointed at one end and rounded from the opposite. This tool was made of bone, wood and less often of metal, but used as a clerical device designed to bring out the characters (sharp end) and erase what was written (blunt). Time passed and the word "style" more and more began to denote the quality of the written.
The text should be understood as the basic communicative unit, the speech product, which is the result of human activity.
The text styles in Russian depend on thea certain composition of the work (entry, main body and conclusion). The main part should be present necessarily, but whether there will be an entry and a conclusion in it, the author will decide.
What should be guided to correctly determine the text styles?
First of all, I note that in Russian it is customary to single out four book (official-business, scientific, journalistic and artistic) and one conversational style.
Each of them has its own language facilities (words, word forms, word combinations, kinds of sentences).
If a speaker or a writer finds it difficult to choose a style in a given situation, the scientists recommend that they adhere to a certain scheme:
- First of all, you need to answer the question, for what purpose are you going to say / write a certain text.
- Assess the environment around you for the appropriateness of using this or that manner of expressing one's own thought.
- Apply characteristic speech genres, means of expression and style features of the language.
What are the styles of the text?
In the previous section, they were only listed, so in this chapter I will discuss each of them in more detail.
Purpose: to share with everyone around any household information, to tell about your thoughts, feelings, emotions.
The situation: any unofficial. For example, private correspondence or conversation, notes, friendly conversation.
Speech genres: colloquial vocabulary.
Means of expression: imagery, emotionality, simplicity, concreteness.
Purpose: to convey certain information or to explain a fact from a scientific point of view.
Speech genres: educational and scientific literature.
Means of expression: terms and vocabulary.
Style features: logic, objectivity, accuracy.
Purpose: to convey official information.
Conditions: office work, legislation, any administrative and legal activity.
Speech genres: resolutions, resolutions, orders, acts, certificates, announcements, instructions, reports, reports, statements.
Means of expression: stable speech, formal business vocabulary.
Style features: accuracy, other interpretation is unacceptable.
- The journalistic
Purpose: to influence, using the mass media.
Conditions: newspapers, magazines, radio, television, meetings, rallies.
Speech genres: essay, article, reportage, interview.
Means of expression: special social and political vocabulary.
Style features: consistency, consistency, emotionality.
Purpose: to work, trying to convey the image.
The situation: a fable, a poem, a poem, a tragedy, a drama, a comedy, a story, a story.
Speech genres: all the richness of vocabulary.
Style features: emotionality, concreteness, imagery.