The Adrianople world. Conclusion of the Adrianople Peace Treaty
Relations between Russia and the Ottoman Empirethroughout the centuries-old history were quite complex, and often political contradictions were resolved on the battlefields. Usually the point in military conflicts was set by concluding agreements. These documents often determined the fate of entire peoples who lived on the borders of both empires. Among them is the Adrianople Peace Treaty.
Prehistory (18th century)
The first Adrianople peace between Russia andOttoman Turkey was signed on June 13, 1713. According to this document, the Ottoman Empire was ceded to Azov and the territory adjoining the fortress along the river Oreli. At the same time, the conclusion of the treaty of 1713 was recognized as a diplomatic success of the Russian state, since it facilitated the struggle for domination on the shores of the southeastern Baltic. Seven years later, in Constantinople, "Eternal Peace" was concluded between the countries, and a century later, events occurred that made the diplomats reconvene in the city of Adrianople.
It all started with the fact that in October 1827The government of the Ottoman Empire (Porta) closed the Bosphorus for the Russian fleet. This was contrary to the Akkerman International Convention. The Turkish authorities motivated their actions by the fact that Nicholas the First supports the Greeks fighting for independence. Sultan Mahmud II understood that thereby provoking a military conflict, therefore ordered to strengthen the fortress on the Danube and moved the capital to Adrianople (Edirne). This city has entered the history of mankind for many centuries before the events described. After all, it was on the approaches to it in the 4th century AD that the Adrianople battle took place, which ended in the defeat of the Roman Empire and marked the beginning of mass migration ready for the West.
The Russian-Turkish War (1828-1829)
Nicholas I could not help but react to the hostilePort actions. April 14, 1828, the Russian Empire officially declared war on Turkey. Ten days later, the 6th Infantry Corps of Fedor Geismar joined Moldavia, and on May 27 the crossing over the Danube began, at which the emperor himself was present.
Later, the Russian troops were besieged and Varna. In parallel, fighting was conducted in Anapa and in the Asian territories of Turkey. In particular, on June 23, 1828, Kars was taken, and after a short delay connected with the outbreak of the plague, Akhalkalaki, Akhaltsikhe, Atskhur, Ardahan, Poti and Bayazet fell or gave up without resistance.
Almost everywhere Russian troops metwelcome reception, since the majority of the population of the regions where the fighting took place was Greek, Bulgarians, Serbs, Armenians, Georgians, Romanians and representatives of other peoples who professed Christianity. For centuries, they were considered second-class citizens and hoped for liberation from the Ottoman yoke.
Counting on the support of local Greek andBulgarian population, on August 7, 1829 the Russian army, consisting of only 25,000 people, approached Adrianople. The chief of the garrison did not expect such a maneuver and surrendered the city, and after a while Erzrum also fell. Immediately after that, a representative of the Sultan arrived at Count Dibich with a proposal to conclude an agreement known as the Adrianople Peace Treaty.
End of the war
Despite the fact that the offer to concludeThe Adrmananopol Peace came from Turkey, the Porte tried to hold out the negotiations with all its might, hoping to persuade England and Austria to support it. This policy had some success, since Pasha Mustafa, who had evaded participation in the war, decided to place his 40,000-strong Albanian army at the disposal of the Turkish command. He took Sofia and decided to move on. However, Dibich did not lose his head and informed the Turkish envoys that if the Adrianople peace was not concluded before September 1, he would launch a large-scale offensive against Constantinople. The Sultan was frightened by the possible siege of the capital and sent a German ambassador to the Russian troops with a request to begin preparations for signing an agreement on the cessation of hostilities.
Conclusion of the Adrianople world
September 2, 1829 in the rate to Dibich profitbeshdefterdar (keeper of treasury) Mehmed Sadyk-efendi and chief military judge of the Ottoman Empire Abdul Kadir-bey. They were authorized by the Porte to sign the Adrianople Treaty. On behalf of Nicholas I the document was certified by the signatures of Count A. Orlov and temporary administrator of the Danube principalities F. P. Palen.
Treaty of Adrianople (1829): content
The document consisted of 16 articles. According to them:
1. Turkey returned all of its European territories occupied during the war of 1828-1829, with the exception of the mouth of the Danube along with the islands. Kars, Akhaltsikhe and Akhalkalaki also yielded.
2. The Russian Empire received the entire eastern coast of the Black Sea, starting from the mouth of the Kuban River to the pier of St. Nicholas. The fortresses Anapa, Poti, Sujuk-kale, as well as the cities of Akhalkalaki and Akhaltsikhe left to her.
3. The Ottoman Empire officially recognized the transition to Russia of Imeretia, Kartli-Kakheti kingdom, Guria and Mingrelia, as well as Iranian-handed Erivan and Nakhichevan khanates.
4. Turkey promised not to impede the passage through the Bosporus and the Dardanelles to Russian and foreign merchant ships.
5. Subjects of the Russian state were allowed to trade throughout the Ottoman Empire, while they were not subject to local authorities.
6. Turkey was due within a year and a half to pay the contribution (1.5 million Dutch chervontsi).
7. In addition, the treaty contained requirements for the recognition and granting of autonomy to Serbia, as well as to the Moldavian and Valaš princedoms.
8. Turkey also refused any attempts to convene an international conference on granting the rights of Greek self-government.
The Adrianople world was of great importance fordevelopment of the Black Sea trade. In addition, he completed the annexation of part of the territories of the Transcaucasus to the Russian Empire. Its role in the restoration of the independence of Greece is invaluable, although this requirement was not formally stipulated in the conditions of the Treaty of Adrianople of 1829.