China: geographical location. China: population, climate, map
A huge country with a profitablegeographical location is China. It is located in East Asia. Its relief is very diverse. In China, there are mountains, hills, plains, highlands, river valleys, deserts. This is the most populous country in the world. But the vast areas of China are deserted. After all, most of the population is concentrated on the plains.
China on the world mapwest coast of the Pacific Ocean. Its area is almost equal to the area of all of Europe. China covers an area of 9.6 million square kilometers. By area, this country is overtaken only by Russia and Canada.
The territory of China stretches for 5.2 thousand kilometersfrom east to west and 5.5 thousand kilometers from south to north. The easternmost point of the country is at the confluence of the Ussuri and Amur rivers, the westernmost in the Pamir Mountains, the southernmost among the Spratly Islands, the northernmost on the Amur River in Mohe County.
China on the world map from the east is washedseveral seas that are part of the Pacific Ocean. The coastline of the country stretches for 18000 km. The sea in China creates a border with five countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, Japan, Brunei and the Philippines.
From the south, north and west passes landborder. Its length is 22,117 km. By land, China has a border with Russia, the DPRK, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Nepal, Pakistan, Bhutan, India, Laos, Vietnam, Myanmar.
Geographical position China is quite successful for its economic development.
The country's terrain is very diverse. China, whose geography is wide, has a stepped landscape. It consists of three levels, declining from west to east.
In the south-west of the state are the Tibetanhighlands and the Himalayas. They are the highest step in the landscape of a country like China. Geography and relief mostly consist of uplands, plateaus and mountains. The lowest level, consisting of plains, is located off the coast.
Part of the world's highest mountain systemis located in the south-west of the country. In addition to China, the Himalayas are located in the territories of India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bhutan. On the border of the state in question is 9 of the 14 highest mountains of the world - Everest, Chogori, Lhotse, Makalu, Cho-Oyu, Shishabangma, Chogori, several peaks from the massif of Gasherbrum.
The Tibetan Plateau is located north ofThe Himalayas. It is the largest in area and the highest plateau in the world. It is surrounded by ridges from all sides. In addition to the Himalayas, the neighbors of the Tibetan Plateau are Kunlun, Qilyanshan, Karakorum, Sino-Tibetan mountains. The last of them and the adjacent Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau are a hard-to-reach area. It is cut by deep Yangtze, Salween and Mekong rivers.
Thus, the characteristic of China's geographical location in the south-west is characterized by the presence of mountainous areas.
In the north-west of the country near the Tibetan Plateauthe Tarim basin, the Takla-Makan desert and the Turfan depression are located. The last object is the deepest in East Asia. Even further north is the Dzungarian Plain.
East of the Tarim Basin contrasts moremore geographic location. China in these places is changing the landscape on the steppes and deserts. This is the territory of Inner Mongolia, an autonomous region. It is located on a high plateau. Its most part is occupied by the Gobi and Alashan deserts. The Loess Plateau adjoins them from the south. This area is very fertile and rich in forests.
The north-eastern part of the country is rather flat. There are no high mountain ranges here. In this part of China is the Sunlao plain. It is surrounded by small mountain ranges - Big and Small Khingans, Changbai Mountain.
In the north of China, the mainagricultural zones. This part of the country consists of vast plains. They eat well on rivers and are very fertile. These are such plains as Liaoheskaya and North-China.
The south-eastern part of the country stretches from the Huaiyanshan Range to the Qinling Mountains. It also includes the island of Taiwan. The local landscape consists mainly of mountains alternating with river valleys.
In the south of the country are the areas of Guangxi, Guangdong, and in part Yunnan. It also includes a year-round resort, Hainan Island. Local relief consists of hills and small mountains.
Climate and weather
The climate of the country is not homogeneous. It is affected by geographical location. China is located in three climatic zones. Therefore, the weather in different parts of the country is different.
North and west China are in the zonetemperate continental climate. The average temperature here is -7 ° C in the winter season, although there are, it drops to -20 ° C. In summer, the temperature is at + 22 ° C. For winter and autumn, strong winds are drying up.
Central China lies in the zone of the subtropical climate. In winter, the air temperature ranges from 0 to -5 ° C. In summer, it is kept at + 20 ° C.
South China and the islands have a tropical monsoonclimate. There the thermometer in winter is in the range from +6 to +15 ° C, and in summer it rises for + 25 ° C. This part of the country is characterized by powerful typhoons. They occur in winter and autumn.
Annual rainfall decreases from south and east to north and west - from about 2000 mm to 50 mm.
According to the data of 2014, 1.36 billion people live in the country. Big country China is home to 20% of the world's inhabitants.
The state is on the verge of demographiccrisis of resettlement. Therefore, the government is struggling with high birth rates. His goal is one child per family. But the demographic policy is conducted flexibly. Thus, it is allowed to give birth to a second child to ethnic minorities, as well as to families living in rural areas, if the first child is a girl or has physical disabilities.
Some of the population opposes such a policy. She is especially unhappy in the countryside. After all, there is a higher need for the birth of a large number of boys as a future workforce.
But according to forecasts, the population growth will grow, despite this. According to calculations, in 2030 in China will live one and a half billion people.
The population is distributed around the country very much.unevenly. This is due to the difference in geographical conditions. The average population density is 138 people per square kilometer. This figure looks quite acceptable. He does not talk about overpopulation. After all, the same figure is typical for some countries in Europe.
But the average indicator does not reflect the real situation. There are areas in the country where almost no one lives, and in Macau 21000 people live per square kilometer.
Half of the country is practically uninhabited. The Chinese live in river basins, on fertile plains. And in the highlands of Tibet, in the deserts of the Gobi and Takla-Makan there are almost no settlements.
National composition and language of the population
There are different nationalities in the country.Most of the population considers themselves Han Chinese. But apart from them, 55 nationalities are distinguished in China. The largest nations are the Zhuang, the Manchus, the Tibetans, the smallest are the foreheads.
Dialects in different parts of the country are also different.The difference between them is so great that a resident of the south of China will not understand the inhabitant of the north. But in the country there is a national language of Putongha. Residents of China, moving from region to region, are obliged to own it in order to avoid problems in communication.
Also in the country the Mandarin, or Peking dialect is spread. It can be considered an alternative to Putongha. In fact, 70% of the population owns the Mandarin dialect.
Religion and beliefs of the population
Since the middle of the 20th century, in China, as in a communist state, religious beliefs and beliefs were not welcomed. Atheism was an official ideology.
But since 1982, there has been a change in this issue.The constitution included the right to freedom of religion. The most widespread religions here are Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. But Christianity, Islam, and Judaism are also popular.
In China, not many large cities.The population of this country is not urbanized. But where the construction of the city begins, it grows to the size of a huge metropolis, uniting a large number of residential, business, commercial, industrial and agricultural areas. For example, Chongqing. He is the largest representative of such megacities. According to information for 2014, it is home to 29 million people. Its area is almost equal to the area of Austria and is 82400 square kilometers.
Other major cities of the country are Shanghai, Tianjin, Harbin, Guangzhou and, of course, Beijing, the capital of China.
The Chinese call Beijing Beijing. This means the Northern Capital. City planning is characterized by strict geometry. The streets are oriented in parts of the world.
Beijing is the capital of China and one of the most interestingcities of the country. His heart is Tiananmen Square. In translation, this word means "the gates of heavenly tranquility." The main building on the square is the mausoleum of Mao Zedong.
An important landmark of the city is the Forbidden City. It is called the Gugun. It is a beautiful and ancient palace ensemble.
No less interesting are Iheyuan and Yuanminyuan.These are garden and palace complexes. They miraculously combine miniature rivers, elegant bridges, waterfalls, residential buildings. Here there is a wonderful harmony and a sense of the unity of man with nature.
In the capital there are many temples of suchreligious trends, like Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism. One of them is the most interesting. This is the Temple of Heaven Tien Tan. He is the only religious construction in the city of round shape. It has a unique wall. If you say a word about her even in the quietest whisper, it will spread all along its length.
The temple of Eternal Tranquility of Yunhegun is also noteworthy. This is a Lamaist religious structure. In it is a Buddha statue carved from a single trunk of sandalwood. Its length is 23 meters.
There are many museums in Beijing.Particularly noticeable is the National Picture Gallery. It stores a large collection of Chinese painting. No less interesting is the Museum of National History, in which you can trace the whole path of China's development.
The main attraction is Wangfujing Street.This is a favorite place for walking, both among tourists and local people. The history of the street began more than 700 years ago. Now it is reconstructed. The street is in the shopping center area. It harmoniously combines ancient and modern cultures.
Not far from Beijing begins the Great Chinesewall. Most people associate it with it. This is a grandiose structure. It stretches for 67000 km. The construction of the wall lasted more than 2000 years.