The history of the creation of computers of different generations
The first computers appeared after World War IIwar, when the discoveries of mathematicians and other scientists made it possible to implement a new way of reading information. And although today these machines seem to be outlandish artifacts, they became the progenitors of modern, usual PC users.
Manchester "Mark I" and EDSAC
The first computer in the modern sense of thiswords became the device "Mark I", created in 1949. Its uniqueness consisted in the fact that it was completely electronic, and its program memory was stored in its RAM. This achievement of British specialists was a big leap forward in the centuries-old history of the development of computers. Manchester's "Mark I" included Williams tubes and magnetic drums, which served as a repository for information.
Today, many years later, the history of creationthe first computer causes discussion. The question remains what kind of machine can be called the first computer. Manchester's "Mark I" remains the most popular version, although there are other contenders. One of them is EDSAC. Without this machine, the history of the emergence of a computer as an invention would be completely different. If the "Mark" appeared in Manchester, then EDSAC was created by scientists from Cambridge University. This computer was commissioned in May 1949. Then the first program was run on it, which squared the numbers from 0 to 99.
Manchester "Mark I" and EDSAC were intendedfor specific programs. The next step in the evolution of computers was the Z4. Last but not least, the device was notable for its dramatic history of creation. The computer was created by the German engineer Conrad Zuse. Work on the project began at the final stage of the Second World War. This circumstance greatly inhibited this development. The laboratory of Zuse was destroyed during a raid by enemy aviation. Together with it, all equipment and preliminary results of long-term work were lost.
Nevertheless, the talented engineer did not give up. Production was continued after the onset of peace. In 1950 the project was finally completed. Long and thorny was the story of his creation. The computer immediately interested in the Swiss Higher Technical School. She bought a car. Z4 interested the specialists with an ulterior motive. The computer had universal programming, that is, it was the first multifunctional device of this type.
The appearance of Soviet electronic computers
In the same 1950, the history of the creation of computers inThe USSR was marked by no less important event. At the Kiev Institute of Electrical Engineering was created MESM - a small electronic calculating machine. A group of Soviet scientists worked on the project, which was headed by Academician Sergei Lebedev.
The device of this machine included sixthousand electric lamps. A lot of power allowed us to take on tasks that had previously been unprecedented for Soviet technology. For a second, the device could perform about three thousand operations.
At the first stage of computer developmentspecialists from universities or other state structures were engaged in the development. In 1951, the LEO I model appeared, created thanks to the investments of the British private company Lyons and Company, which owned restaurants and shops. With the advent of this device, the history of the creation of computers has reached yet another important milestone. LEO I was the first to use commercial data. Its construction was similar to the construction of the ideological predecessor of EDSAC.
The first American commercial computer wasUNIVAC I. He appeared in the same 1951 year. In total, forty-six such models were sold, each costing a million dollars. One of them was used in the US population census. The device consisted of more than five thousand electrovacuum lamps. As a data carrier, delay lines from mercury were used. On one of them could be stored up to a thousand words. In the development of UNIVAC I, it was decided to abandon the punch cards and switch to metallized magnetic tape. With its help, the device could be connected to commercial data storage systems.
Meanwhile, Soviet electroniccomputers had its own creation history. The computer "Strela", which appeared in 1953, was the first such serial device in the USSR. The novelty was produced on the basis of the Moscow factory of counting and analytical machines. For three years of production, eight samples were produced. These unique machines were installed in the Academy of Sciences, Moscow State University and design bureaus located in closed cities.
"Arrow" could perform 2-3 thousand operations ingive me a sec. For domestic equipment, these were record numbers. Data was stored on a magnetic tape, which could hold up to 200 thousand words. The developers of the device were awarded the Stalin Prize. Chief designer Yuri Bazilevsky also became the Hero of Socialist Labor.
The second generation of computers
Back in 1947, transistors were invented. In the late 50's. they replaced energy-consuming and fragile lamps. With the advent of transistors, the computing machine began a new history of creation. The computers that received these new parts were later recognized as models of the second generation. The main innovation was that PCBs and transistors allowed to significantly reduce the size of computers, which made them much more practical and convenient.
If before computers occupied whole rooms, thennow they have decreased to the proportions of office desks. Such, for example, was the IBM 650 model. But even the transistors did not solve yet another important problem. Computers were still very expensive, which was why they were made only to order for universities, large corporations or governments.
Further evolution of computers
In 1959, integrated circuits were invented.They laid the foundation for the third generation of computers. 1960's. became a turning point for a computer. Their production and sales increased at times. Thanks to the new details, the devices became cheaper and more affordable, although they were still not personal. Basically, these computers were bought by companies.
In 1971, Intel developers released to the marketthe first in the history of the microprocessor Intel 4004. On its basis there were computers of the fourth generation. Microprocesses solved several important problems, before hiding in the device of any computer. One such detail performed all the logical and arithmetic operations that were written using machine code. Prior to this discovery, this function lay on a lot of small elements. The emergence of a single universal part has become a prelude to the development of small home computers.
In 1977, Apple, founded by SteveJobs, introduced the world model Apple II. Its fundamental difference from any other previous computers was that the device of a young California company was intended for sale to ordinary citizens. It was a breakthrough, which just recently seemed simply unheard of. So the history of creation of personal computers of the computer generation began. The novelty was in demand until the 90's. During this period, about seven million devices were sold, which was an absolute record of that time.
The subsequent models of Apple received a uniquea graphical interface, familiar to modern users keyboard and many other innovations. All the same Steve Jobs almost made a popular computer mouse. In 1984, he presented his most successful Macintosh model, which laid the foundation for a whole line that still exists today. Many discoveries of engineers and developers of Apple have become a base for today's personal computers created by other manufacturers.
Due to the fact that all revolutionary discoveries,connected with computers, occurred in the West, the history of the creation of computers in Russia and the USSR remained in the shadow of foreign successes. It was also due to the fact that the development of such machines was controlled by the state, while in Europe and the US the initiative gradually passed into the hands of private companies.
In 1964 the first Sovietsemiconductor computers "Snow" and "Spring". In the 1970s. in the defense industry, the computers "Elbrus" began to be used. They were used in the missile defense system and nuclear centers.