Discharges of adjectives: the general concept and features of meaning, change and use
The adjective in Russian is a part ofspeech, the main function of which is the designation of the nonprocess feature of the subject (in contrast to the participle, which designates the feature of the subject by action). Adjectives are able to vary in cases and numbers, and in the singular - also in gender, and also classified according to special lexical and grammatical groups - categories. Thus, the categories of adjectives are three large groups that combine words that are similar in meaning and method of designating the feature of the subject. Adjectives belonging to each of the categories have their own characteristics of change and use. Let's talk about this in more detail below, and below is a summary table.
Ranks of adjectives
Degree of comparison
The combination with the adverb "very"
A sign of an object on the part of its quality, that is, a sign can manifest itself in one way or another
Good, kind, easy, beautiful, poor, old
A feature of the subject, indicating the relation to the place, time, material, etc., that is, constant, unchanged
Evening (hours), iron (rod), milk (soup), continental (climate)
The feature of the subject as a designation of belonging to something or someone
The wolf (hide), maiden (honor), grandfathers (jacket)
Qualitative adjectives: features of meaning, change and use
Qualitative adjectives arelexico-grammatical category, which combines words denoting the quality of the subject, that is, a sign that is capable of manifesting to some extent, more or less, for example: dear doll, beautiful girl, poor artist, talented actor. Qualitative adjectives, besides the changeby case, gender and number, are still able to form brief forms, degrees of comparison and combine with the adverb "very". Other categories of adjectives (relative and possessive) do not have these characteristics.
Formation of short forms
A short form is formed from a complete form and has a close semantic connection with it: tight - tight, tight, tight; beautiful - beautiful, beautiful, beautiful; harmful - harmful, harmful, harmful. There are a number of adjectives that once in Russian had both a full and a short form, but today they are used only in brief, for example: glad, lyub, gorazd, must and others.
It is noteworthy that historically it is a shortthe form of the adjective is considered basic, the original, and in the initial stages of the development of the language the full form was formed from a brief form. Today, with the formation of a short form, the alternation or loss of vowels can be observed: green - green, green, green; sharp - sharp, cutting, cutting. Adjectives in a brief form vary in numbers and births (in the singular), but do not decline. In the sentence, as a rule, they perform the function of the predicate: In this dress the Countess was unusually beautiful.
Formation of degrees of comparison
Comparative and excellent degree of comparison is an illustration of how vividly and fully expressed this quality in the subject: Dad is good - better - better; an artist talented - more talented than the other - talented. Recall that other categories of adjectives denote the feature of the subject as permanent, not capable of gradation.
The degrees of comparison can be formed as synthetically - suffixally (expensive - more expensive, beautiful - beautiful), and analytically - with the help of special words:
- comparative - more, less than + the initial form of the adjective (more complicated, less interesting);
- excellent - the most, least, most + the initial form of the adjective (most attractive, most cheerful) or all, all + simple comparative degree of the adjective (sings best, valued more than anything else).
The words of this part of speech in a syntheticcomparative form do not change by case, number and gender and do not agree with the noun, the sign of which they designate. Their syntactic function in the sentence is the nominal part of the compound nominal predicate (An old friend is better than two new ones).
For most qualitative adjectivessimple and compound forms of degrees of comparison can exist in parallel, but words that do not form a simple comparative degree are found in modern language: mass, early, timid and others.
Another nuance that needs to be paid attention is the formation of degrees of comparison from different bases, for example: good - better, worse - worse, smaller - less.
From adjectives to comparative and excellentdegree should be distinguished words-manifestations of subjective evaluation, which denote not the degree of manifestation of a given trait in a particular situation, but the evaluation of this attribute by the speakers: tiny pen, pretty face, huge paws. Do not include adjectives with suffixes in this group -ovate- / -Evate-: such words denote not a subjective evaluation of a feature, but an objective incompleteness of its manifestation, for example: whitish haze, greenish tinge.
If we compare the categories of nouns andadjectives, we can draw the following parallel: real nouns denote matter, material, and relative adjectives are a sign with respect to this substance, material: wood - wooden, rice - rice, ice - ice. However, a sign, denoted by the adjectives of this group, can refer not only to the material, but also to the place, time, etc., for example: evening, summer, foreign, domestic, coastal. This sign manifests itself constantly and can not be expressed to a greater or lesser extent, so the relative adjectives are unable to form the degree of comparison.
This category combines adjectives that answer the question whose? and denote the belonging of an object to someone or something: father's friend, wolf's fang, sheep's wool, grandfather's cap.
Discharges of adjectives: the use of words in figurative meaning
To increase the expressiveness of speech, in some cases, adjectives from one category can be used in the meaning of words from another level, for example: iron mug - iron nerves, wolf - wolf look, gold chain - golden hands. In connection with this, the category of the adjective is determined not only taking into account the general formal indicators, but also with close attention to the context.