Narkomovskie 100 grams. Why was alcohol given in the war?
You can find many references to the usealcoholic beverages by soldiers to achieve this or that effect in battle. But where did this habit in the Russian army come from, who approved it and how alcohol influenced the fighting efficiency of the soldiers? And what is "100 grams" of drug addicts? It is worthwhile to understand, because the fact that vodka in the Red Army was from the very beginning - a fact that is beyond doubt.
History of the occurrence of alcohol norms
It is known that the first in Russia alcohol soldiersordered to give out Emperor Peter I. Then it was called "bread wine". The bottom line was that during the campaign the soldiers periodically drank wine, the officers, at will, could replace it with cognac. Depending on the severity of the campaign, this rate could be increased or decreased. With this, everything was quite strict. So, the quartermaster, who did not take care of the supply of alcohol in a timely manner, could even deprive the head. It was believed that this undermines the fighting spirit of the army.
Tradition was picked up by many Russian tsars andemperors, while it has been changed many times and supplemented. Under Nicholas I, for example, wine was given to guard units in fortresses and cities. In this case, the military ranks received three servings a week, non-combat ranks - two. In the campaigns, we drank vodka, which was previously diluted with water and seized with breadcrumbs. Officers, however, were made to give out tea with rum. In winter, sbiten and wine were more relevant.
A bit different was in the fleet - here the sailornecessarily gave out a glass, that is 125 grammes of vodka a day, but for offenses the seaman was deprived of this opportunity. For merits - on the contrary, they gave a double or triple dose.
How did the "drug addicts"
The history of the emergence of alcohol norms in the SovietThe army, which was called "Commissar 100 grams" originates from People's Commissar of the military and naval affairs of the USSR - Kliment Voroshilov. During the Finnish war, he asked Stalin to allow the delivery of alcohol to the troops in order to warm up the personnel in severe frosts. Indeed, then the temperatures on the Karelian Isthmus reached 40 degrees below zero. The People's Commissar also claimed that this could raise the morale of the army. And Stalin agreed. Since 1940, alcohol began to flow into the troops. Before the battle, the soldier drank 100 grams of vodka and seized it with 50 grams of fat. Tanks were then supposed to double the norm, and the pilots were given cognac in general. Since this caused approval among the soldiers, the norm was called "Voroshilov". Since the introduction (January 10) to March 1940, soldiers have drunk about 10 tons of vodka and about 8 tons of cognac.
In the Great Patriotic War
The official "birthday" of the drug addicts is 22June 1941. Then on our land came the terrible war of 1941-1945 - the Great Patriotic War. It was on her first day that Stalin signed an order at number 562, which allowed the issuance of alcohol before the battle - half a glass of vodka per person (fortress - 40 degrees). This concerned those who were directly on the front line. The same was true for the pilots performing combat missions, as well as the aerodrome flight crew and engineers and technicians. Responsible for fulfilling the order of the Supreme was the People's Commissar of Food Industry AI Mikoyan. Then, for the first time, the name "Narodomovskie 100 grams" sounded. Among the mandatory conditions was the distribution of the drink commanders of the fronts. The regulation provided for the supply of alcohol in tanks, after that vodka was poured into cans or barrels and transported to the troops. There was, of course, a restriction: it was allowed to transport no more than 46 cisterns per month. Naturally, in summer such a need disappeared, and in winter, spring and autumn the norm was relevant.
It is possible that the idea of giving vodka to the retreatingthe parts were punctuated by the psychological attacks of the Germans: the drunken soldiers marched on full machine guns without concealing themselves. This produced a strong effect on the Soviet troops, which were at the disadvantage and were thus at a disadvantage.
Further application of the norm in the troops
In connection with the defeat of the Red Army near Kharkovcorrections were made to the order of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief. Now it was decided to differentiate vodka. Since June 1942, alcohol was planned to be issued only in those units that have achieved success in the battles with the German fascist invaders. At the same time, the "commissar" norm should have been increased to 200 grams. But Stalin decided that it was only possible to issue vodka to the units conducting offensive operations. The rest could see it only on holidays.
In connection with the fighting near Stalingrad, the T-bills decidedto restore the old rate - from now on it was given out to 100 grams to all those who went on the attack on the front line. But there were innovations: the dose was also received by artillerymen with mortar men who provided support for the infantry in the offensive. A little less - 50 grams - was poured to the rear services, namely reservists, construction troops and the wounded. The Transcaucasian Front, for example, used, by virtue of its location, wine or port (200 and 300 grams, respectively). During the last month of fighting in 1942, a lot was drunk. The Western Front, for example, "destroyed" about a million liters of vodka, the Transcaucasian - 1.2 million liters of wine, Stalingrad - 407 thousand liters.
Already in 1943 (April) the norms for issuing alcoholagain changed. GKO Resolution No. 3272 stated that mass distribution of vodka in the units would be stopped, and the norm would be placed only for those units that conduct offensive operations on the front line. All the rest received "Commissar's grammes" only on holidays. The delivery of alcohol was now on the conscience of councils of fronts or armies. By the way, such troops as the NKVD and railroads fell under the limit, since their consumption of alcohol was very high.
Many veterans, indulging in memories,they said that this norm did not exist everywhere. In some parts, for example, it was issued only on paper, in fact - no distribution of alcohol was not. Others, on the contrary, testify that this was practiced, and massively. So the true state of things is not known for certain.
Finally, the issuance of the norm was abolished in connection with thewith the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945. However, Soviet troops are so fond of this kind of rules, that the tradition survived until the collapse of the USSR. In particular, this was done by servicemen of the Afghan contingent. Of course, such things were done secretly, since the command would not stroke the soldiers' heads for drinking alcohol during hostilities.
Similar cases in the world
Mentioning about such an alcohol norm in KrasnayaArmy, it should also be said that the Wehrmacht, against whom she fought, also did not have a special sobriety. The soldier's staff was the most popular liquor was schnapps, and the officers drank champagne, which they supplied from France. And, if you do not take into account alcohol, other substances are also not disdain. So, to maintain vivacity during the fighting, soldiers took medications - "Pervitin", for example, or "Isofan". The first was called "penserschocolate" - "tank chocolate". He was sold openly, while soldiers often asked parents to send them "Pervitina."
Results and consequences of the application
Why was alcohol given in the war? To this question, upon closer examination, it is possible to give dozens of different answers. Which of them will be closest to the truth?
As stated in the ruling, alcoholissued in winter in order to warm the frozen soldiers. However, any physician will confirm that alcohol only creates the appearance of warming, in fact, the situation does not change.
Also, knowing what effect alcohol has onthe human brain, it can be argued that it was taken to raise morale. After all, in many situations, when the initiative or recklessness of soldiers was necessary, they were extinguished by the instinct of self-preservation. Narkomovskaya vodka effectively suppressed this feeling, along with the main fears. But she also dulled reflexes, perception, and being drunk in combat is not the best idea. That is why many experienced fighters deliberately refused to drink before the fight. And, as it turned out later, they did the right thing.
Effect of alcohol on the psyche and physical state
Among other things, vodka has been effectiveimpact in the event that the human psyche was subjected to heavy loads, as is often the case in war. Many fighters saved alcohol from strong nervous shocks or even madness. However, one can not confidently say that alcohol has a positive or negative influence on the war in the army.
Yes, vodka, even if it has allthe above-described positive qualities, still did harm. One can only imagine the scale of the army's losses, because alcoholic intoxication in combat almost always meant a sure death. In addition, one can not ignore the very fact of the constant use of alcohol, which can cause alcoholism, and in some cases, death. Disciplinary offenses should also not be written off. So "100 grams of drug addicts" have both positive and negative sides.
In the USSR, they never supported drunkenness.It is all the more surprising that he, even in a limited form, was practiced in the army. After all, since 1938, there have been several campaigns against drunkenness in the army. Many of the higher command or party officials went through investigative matters just on the fact of excessive consumption of alcohol. Accordingly, both the delivery and use of booze were kept under strict control. For drunkenness in the wrong time could easily be sent to the penal battalion, or even completely shot without trial and investigation, especially at a time like the war of 1941-1945.
Post-war application in the army
In addition to illegal cases, there wasthe official alcohol norm is in the Navy. The crews of submarine nuclear powered boats were assigned a daily dry wine norm (also 100 grams). But, like under Stalin, it was issued only during a military campaign.
Reflection of the term in art
For some reason, "100 grams of narcotic" is very strongentrenched in art. Already at that time you could hear songs with a mention of the alcohol norm. And cinema did not ignore this phenomenon - in many films you can see how soldiers before the fight overturn a glass and with shouts of "For the Motherland! For Stalin!" go on the offensive.