Delinquency is what? Types of delinquent behavior
Delinquency is increasingly commona phenomenon in our days. It implies a violation of social norms accepted in society. The increasingly mass character of delinquent and deviant behavior made them pay attention to them by sociologists, psychologists, doctors, law enforcement officials and even ordinary people. Many scientists are studying the causes, factors and conditions that determine the manifestation of this negative phenomenon. However, first we need to understand what is normal behavior and what is it caused by?
In any society there are traditions andbehavior rules. They can be either formal or unwritten. There are also enforcement mechanisms for their implementation. We must understand that this is not only the law enforcement agencies, but also the fear of condemnation on the part of relatives. A person can say as much as he likes that he does not accept the generally accepted moral, but subconsciously follow it. A completely different situation can be observed in a society that is in a constant reform process. During this period old norms are destroyed, and new ones appear, but do not succeed in getting used to and acquire mechanisms of coercion. Therefore, all reforms and revolutions imply an increase in the level of delinquency of the population. This explains the situation in modern Russia, as well as the destructive tendencies throughout the world. The concept of delinquency implies any violation of social and legal norms. It must be distinguished from deviance. The latter implies a deviation, this is a relative concept. It has to do with the rules that prevail in a particular social group. Delinquency is an absolute concept. It has to do with the laws of this country. However, delinquent behavior covers not only those acts for which a formal punishment follows.
Normal human behavior is the basisharmonious functioning of any society. Therefore, at all times, authorities, philosophers and scientists have sought to find methods and means to stimulate it. Therefore, delinquency is the subject of sociology research. At the origins of her study, the table is still Durkheim. However, a separate direction devoted to the investigation of delinquency was formed thanks to Merton and Cohen. In the USSR it was studied in the context of narcology, criminology and suicidology as special discils. Delinquency is the subject of study of Russian sociologists only since the 1960s and 1970s. A great contribution to the study of this phenomenon was made by Afanasyev, Zdravomyslov, Matochkin, Gilinsky.
The causes of delinquency
Different directions of sociology explaindeviations from normal behavior are not the same. Merton, following Durkheim, uses the term "anomaly". Under it, he understands the state of society, when new values have not yet been established, and the old ones have already outlived their own. Thus, it is possible to explain the delinquency of adolescents. It is associated with the restructuring of the psyche and changing their place and role in society. The reason for delinquent behavior, according to Merton, is the inconsistency between the goals that society sets before a person, and the means that it provides to him. Another direction explains deviations by the presence of norms of another culture. Russian sociologist believes that deviations arise because of the inequality of people, the impossibility of meeting their needs by individual social groups. Another group of causes is associated with an increase in the number of different pathologies. For example, mental illness, addiction and alcoholism.
The main type of delinquent behavior iscrime. Also its forms are prostitution and drug addiction. The origins of sociological studies of crime lie in the works of the Russian scientist Herman. A significant contribution to them was made by the French-Belgian statistician Quetelet. The latter came to the conclusion that any social system presupposes the presence of crimes. To eradicate them completely is impossible, it is possible only to keep under control. According to experts, the growth of crime in Russia was greatly influenced by the transition to market relations.
For a long time, drug addiction in the USSR was consideredproblem only of the capitalist countries. However, in modern Russia, no one denies its importance. Sociological surveys show that the main reason for using drugs is the thirst for new sensations. The speech in most cases is about young people, who sat on them under the influence of friends and acquaintances. Today, the society is much better informed about the consequences of drug use, most respondents are negative about them.
Another type of delinquent behavior isprostitution. It originated with the social division of labor and the development of monogamy. Even in the Middle Ages the church was forced to put up with this phenomenon. There are three main policies towards prostitution: prohibition (prohibitionism), registration and medical supervision (regulation), and the conduct of preventive work (abolitionism). The first two forms proved to be ineffective. Historical experience says that only long-lasting social and spiritual transformations can solve this problem in society.
Deviance and delinquency
We must immediately clarify that these two concepts are notare absolutely equivalent. They relate to each other as a whole and part of it. Any delinquent behavior is deviant, but not every deviation is a crime. Everything depends on the laws that are in force in the country. Deviant behavior becomes delinquent only under the influence of the state in the person of its special bodies, which monitor the implementation of formal norms.
The transition period is always complicated.This explains all the difficulties of this age. At this time, the formation of character. Youth delinquency begins with school absenteeism, petty hooliganism. Its main reason is often the shortcomings of upbringing and problems in the family. Sometimes it can be associated with psychopathologies and anomalies of character, which do not allow them to come close to other children, which provokes aggression.